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Nutrition Ch 10 & 11

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?
The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams
What is a precursor?
A substance that is used to synthesize another compound
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following EXCEPT
They must be consumed daily
All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins EXCEPT
excesses are eliminated from the kidneys
Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of
vitamin A
Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk?
Vitamin A
What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins?
Kidney
When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?
Excreted primarily in the urine
What is a chief function of the B vitamins?
Coenzyme participation
Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?
Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts
Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?
Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place
Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin?
Energy release from energy-yielding nutrients
What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme?
Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism
Which of the following is the coenzyme form of thiamin?
Thiamin pyrophosphate
Beriberi results from a deficiency of
Thiamin
Which of the following diets is most likely to lead to beriberi?
High intakes of white rice
The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of
Thiamin
Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition?
It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane
Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?
80
All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition EXCEPT
Recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents"
Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size?
Ham
Which of the following is a property of thiamin nutrition?
Poor sources include seafood and cheeses
How does the method of cooking affect thiamin stability?
Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin
Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue?
Pig
Of the following, which is the richest food source of thiamin?
Soy milk
Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of
hydrogen atoms
Which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation reactions?
Riboflavin
Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin?
Inflamed mouth membranes
Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie?
Vegetables
What is ariboflavonosis?
The vitamin B2 deficiency disease
The signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are know collectively as?
Ariboflavinosis
Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when diet is low in
dairy foods
Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to
ultraviolet light
What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?
Cardboard
The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin?
Riboflavin
Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?
Milk
Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of the following vitamins?
Riboflavin
A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?
Riboflavin
Which of the following is a property of riboflavin in nutrition?
Stability to heat is good
Which of the following is a property of niacin in nutrition?
It can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan
Which of the following properties is shared by niacin and riboflavin coenzymes?
Acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms
When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin?
Tryptophan
Which of the the following nutrients functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral, symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on the areas exposed to the sun?
Niacin
The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means
rough skin
A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?
Niacin
What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein?
Pellagra
Which of the following is NOT among the common signs of pellagra?
Desiccation
A general niacin deficiency is know to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs/systems EXCEPT
skeletal system
Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize
niacin
While researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a sister who died fairly young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you suspect this relative died of
Pellagra
Which of the following substances is found in corn and contributes to the development of pellagra?
Leucine
What term identifies the characteristic tingling sensations and reddening of the skin after ingesting a pharmacologic dose of nicotinic acid?
Niacin flush
Which of the following overt side effects is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid?
Painful, tingling, itching sensation
When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury and peptic ulcers?
Niacin
Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following EXCEPT
disappearance of learning disorders in children
Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition?
High doses may lower blood cholesterol
Your friend Jane just returned from the doctor who diagnosed her with a specific vitamin B toxicity. However, she doesn't recall the name of the vitamin. Which of the following is the only possible culprit associated with toxicity symptoms?
Niacin
What is the approximate niacin RDA for adults?
15 niacin equivalents
Among the following, which would be the best source of niacin equivalents?
Chicken
Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consumes 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should NOT
be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease.
Features of biotin in nutrition include all of the following EXCEPT
a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large amounts of thiamin and folic acid, which interfere with its absorption
Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings?
Biotin
Which of the following foods contains a protein that decreases bioavailability of biotin?
raw egg whites
A protein that binds with biotin (thus inhibiting absorption) is found in which food?
Raw egg whites
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
Biotin
Biotin can be synthesized by
intestinal bacteria
What is the adult Adequate Intake for biotin?
30ug
What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?
Pantothenic acid
What is the AI for pantothenic acid for adults?
5 mg
Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food?
Pantothenic acid
Forms of vitamin B6 include all of the following EXCEPT
pyrimidine
Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue?
Vitamin B6
The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include
confusion and depression
What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism?
Vitamin B6
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?
It is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure
All of the following are features if vitamin B6 metabolism EXCEPT
It enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of 1 mg/g of dietary protein
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin B6?
100 mg
A common drug for the treatment of tuberculosis is known to markedly interfere in the metabolism of vitamin
B6
Irreversible nerve damage has been reported in people taking large doses of
Vitamin B6
Which of the following statements reflects our knowledge of water-soluble vitamin toxicity?
Toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be severe and irreversible
In what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin B6 metabolism?
It dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme
What is the adult RDA for vitamin B6?
1.3 mg
On a per-kcalorie basis, which of the following foods is richest in vitamin B6?
Vegetables
Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings?
Folate
Pteroylglutamic acid is known as
folate
All of the following are properties of folate in nutrition EXCEPT
it functions primarily in the transfer of amino groups
Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate?
Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis
Which of the following vitamins undergoes significant enterohepatic circulation?
Folate
Which of the following vitamins is usually found in a form that is bound to one or more glutamic acid molecules in food?
Folate
A person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of
folate
What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting from folate deficiency?
Since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning
Which of the following is NOT a feature of folate nutrition?
Folate must be methylated by homocysteine prior to crossing the bush border membrane
Approximately what percentage of dietary folate is bioavailable?
50
The percent bioavailability of a folate supplement taken on an empty stomach is
100
How many dietary folate equivalents are provided by 100 ug of a folate supplement?
170
What fraction of women capable of vetoing pregnant ingest the RDA for folate?
1/2
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
folate
Which of the the following isa type of neural tube defect?
Spina bifida
Which of the following is a feature if folate nutrition?
Synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring food folate
By law, what amount of folate (ug) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice?
140
How many DFEs is Nicole consuming?
580
Because of adverse interactions with other vitamins, a safe daily folate intake is up to
1000 ug
A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood?
Folate
The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of
folate
What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells
folate
Which of the following substances is known to adversely affect folate utilization?
Regular use of antacids
Which of the following is representative of folate availability in foods?
Much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation
Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status?
Some anticancer drugs
Physiological stresses such as blood loss, burns, measles, and cancers are know particularly to increase the risk of deficiency for
folate
Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate?
Macrocytic anemia
Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed
goat's milk
Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs?
Folate
What is the RDA for folate for a women weighing 132 pounds?
400 ug
What is the adult RDA for folate (ug)?
400
Which of the following foods is highest in folate?
Green, leafy vegetables
Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?
Intrinsic factor
What is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption?
It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines
All of the following are required for efficient dietary absorption of vitamin B12 EXCEPT
mucosal cobalaminase
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency
Inadequate absorption
Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of
vitamin B12
The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of
vitamin B12
The absorption of which of the following vitamins is most affected by the disorder atrophic gastritis?
Vitamin B12
Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?
It is efficiently recycled by the body
A similar typer of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either
vitamin B12 or folate
Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by inadequate absorption?
Injection of cobalamin
If a person refrained from ingesting any of the water-soluble vitamins, deficiency symptoms would appear last for
vitamin B12
Normally, the body's storage and re-utilization of vitamin B12 prevents a primary or secondary deficiency from occurring until after about
3 years
In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop?
Three years
Pernicious anemia results from a combinations of lack of intrinsic factor and
lack of hydrochloric acid
Which of the following is NOT known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic gastritis?
Avoidance of leafy vegetables
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 bioavailability?
Synthetic B12 in supplement form is highly utilizable
Among the following water-soluble vitamins, a secondary deficiency would most likely be seen for
Vitamin B12
Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency?
Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin
Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12?
Hot dog
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin B12?
it is inactivated when the food is heated in a microwave
The adult RDA for vitamin B12 (ug) is
2.4
Which of the following vitamins has an RDA?
Cobalamin
Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body?
Carnitine
Which of the following is NOT known to be required in the diet of human beings?
Lipoic acid
Which of the following is classified as a conditionally essential nutrient?
Choline
Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human begins?
Choline
Which of the following is NOT known to be a vitamin for human beings?
Ubiquinone
Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?
Tonque
Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency?
smooth tongue
Which of the following charcterisitics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C, and folate?
Consumption prevents anemia
What is a free radical?
A molecule with at least one upaired electon
Which of the following is a general is a general function of vitamin C?
Antioxdant agent
In what capacity does vitamin C function?
Cofactor in collagen formation
The protein that requires ascorbic acid for its formation is
collagen
Which of the following represents the results of well-controlled studies of vitamin C supplementation on the resistance to, and recovery from colds?
There was a signigicat reduction in the duration of colds in people who consumed at least one gram a day
Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold?
The destroy intedtinal pathogens
Which of the following vitamins is known to deactivate histamine, a substance that causes nasal congestion?
Vitamin C
What is the minimun daily amount of ascorbic acid that will prevent the apperance of scorbutic symptons in human beings?
10 mg
How much vitamin C is needed to raise blood ascorbic acid concentrations to a maximum?
200 mg
Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency?
Bleeding gums
In the United States, what is the adult RDA for vitamin C?
75-90 mg
People who smoke require additional vitamin C in the amount of
35 mg
Which of the following symptoms is indicative of a deficiency of vitamin C?
Subcutaneous pinpoint hemorrhages
People with the condition known as iron overload may be adversely affected form taking supplements of
ascorbic acid
Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C?
Fruit group
What term is used to describe the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently shows that you have mononucleosis when in reality you do not?
false positive
What term describes the outcome of a diagnostic test that apparently indicates that you do not have an infection when in reality you do?
flase negative
John is looking to increase his dietary sources of vitamin C. However, he expresses a strong dislike for all citrus fruits. Which of the following shopping lists would you recommend?
Brussels sprouts, broccoil, strawberries
Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?
Broccoli
Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C?
Roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea
Which of the following would be a very good source of vitamin C for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian?
Broccoli
All of the following are consequences of ingesting vitamin C supplements EXCEPT
they enhance the action of anticlotting medications
Moderate intakes of which of the following would provide sufficient amounts of vitamin C?
Potatoes
What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population despite the modest vitamin C concentration?
Potatoes
Which of the following would be the poorest dietary source of vitamin C?
Whole grains
A vitamin supplement labeled as "high potency" contains an amount that is
100% or more of the daily value
Approximately what percentage of the U.S. population takes multinutrient supplements regularly?
33
The known dangers of taking vitamin supplements include all of the following EXCEPT
pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection
Which of the following statements is representative of vitamin supplementation practices?
People who have low energy intakes or are pregnant are at risk for developing deficiencies and may benefit from supplementation
A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of
Vitamin D
Those groups of people who are at risk for developing marginal nutrient deficiencies and may benefit from taking vitamin supplements include all of the following EXCEPT
Athletes who are engaged in intense competitivie events
All of the following are known to occur from a mild iron overdose EXCEPT
black tongue
Which of the following is NOT among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?
Chylomicrons
Which of the following is a property f the fat-soluble vitamins?
Deficiency symptoms make take years to develop on a poor diet
If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which of the following tissues can use it to form vitamin A?
Intestinal cells
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
Beta-carotene
How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?
3
All of the following are forms of vitamin A EXCEPT
Retinoquinone
Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues?
Retinol-binding protein
As far as is known, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes?
Blood clotting
What are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A?
Blindness develops
Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision?
Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
Which of the following is the name of the vitamin A compound that is active in the visual response?
Retinal
Which of the following describes an even in the visual response process?
Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
Approximately what percent of the body's vitamin A stores are found in the liver?
90
What tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A?
Liver
Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin A in bone health?
It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A-poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?
1 to 2 years
Greg says that he usually eats 1 medium carrot every day to ensure that he's consuming enough vitamin A. Today he said he didn't eat any carrots and is worried that there is not enough vitamin A in his system. What would you say to Greg to allay his fear?
Don't worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. it takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects.
Approximately how many children worldwide have vitamin A deficiency?
250 million
Why does vitamin A status depend on the person's protein status?
Transport of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein
Studies in developing countries have demonstrated that the mortality rate of children with measles can be significantly reduced by providing supplements of
vitamin A
Which of the following functions is shared by beta-carotene and vitamin E?
Inhibition of oxidation
The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually
night blindness
Which of the following is associated with the condition know as xerosis?
deficiency of vitamin A
Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions?
Night blindness
The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population group?
Newborns
Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A?
Xerophthalmia
Keratinization is the result of
deficiency of the vitamin A
What part of the body is affected most by keratomalacia?
Cornea
Keratinization of lung cells may result from
deficiency of vitamin A
Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?
they have chemical structures similar to vitamin A
What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?
Children
Which of the following is a feature of taking high-dose supplements of vitamin A?
They increase teratogenic risk
The preferred unit of expression of vitamin A is the
retinol activity equivalent
Which of the following is a feature of Accutane?
It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women
All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene EXCEPT
overconsumption from supplements is harmless
How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 regional activity equivalent?
12
On average, one retinol activity equivalent is equal to about how many international units?
3
Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice?
skin yellowing
Why shouldn't a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribe Accutane?
it is a teratgen and can be harmful to the baby
In which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur?
Those taking vitamin A supplements
To decrease risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than
4 times the RDA
The adult RDA for vitamin A is approximately
800 retinol activity equivalents
Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?
Consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements
Which of the following is a characteristic of carotenoids in food?
Carotenoid absorption efficiency from salads is higher when regular dressing is used compared with low-fat dressing
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods?
Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
Which of the following is a feature of carotenoids in food?
Absorption from the GI tract is blunted by consuming a salad with fat-free dressing
Your sister Ellen has just joined the peace corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into the Indonesian diet to help prevent future generations from developing this condition?
Sweet Potato
A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select al of the following EXCEPT
bananas
Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A?
Pumpkin pie
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin A in foods?
a regular intake of chicken liver is known to induce toxicity in children
Which of the following provides the least amount of precursor vitamin A?
Corn
The plant version of vitamin D is known as
ergocalciferol
The animal version of vitamin D is known as
cholecalciferol
All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D EXCEPT the
intestines
Which of the following shows the highest vitamin D activity?
125-dihydroxy vitamin D
Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D?
Cholesterol
Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
exposure to sunlight
In what tissue(s) must a molecule of vitamin D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?
liver and kidney
All of the following are other names for vitamin D EXCEPT
calcitonin
Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?
Vitamin D
The major target organs for the action of activated vitamin D include all of the following EXCEPT the
liver
What is/are the main functions of vitamin D?
Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin
D
What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?
Osteomalacia
What population group is a highest risk for osteomalacia?
Adult women
In what system would the effect of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
Skeletal
Which of the following systems would indicate a vitamin D deficiency?
Bowed legs
Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?
Osteomalacia and rickets
Which of the following is NOT a feature of vitamin D deficiency?
It causes excess iron absorption
All of the following are characteristics of vitamin D nutrition EXCEPT
the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun
Which of the follow is NOT known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly?
Excessive use of hypertension medication
The risk for vitamin D deficiency increase with advancing age for all of the following reasons EXCEPT reduced
absorption of dietary vitamin D
Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults?
Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
Your old friend from high school has just moved to Northern Canada to do full-time research on bats in caves. she typically works in the caves during the day when the bats are there and leaves at sundown when the bats are active. Since your friend only purchases organic and all natural foods, which of the following would you most likely advise she buy regularly at the grocery store?
vitamin d-fortified milk
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?
The average consumption in the United States does not meet the recommended intake
Which of the following is a characteristics of vitamin D nutrition?
Prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity
Which of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?
Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to formation of mineral deposits in the blood vessels and kidney?
Excessive intake of vitamin D
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?
Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source
Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet?
fortified milk
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?
Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
Which of the following is naturally occurring food source of vitamin D?
egg yolks
Which of the following is NOT a feature of vitamin D nutrition?
Excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity
What is the Adequate Intake level for vitamin D in individuals around 20 years of age?
5 ug
Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?
E
The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
antioxidant
What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?
Eliminator
Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?
both function as antioxidants
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
it slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of
polyunsaturated fatty acids
What form of tocopherol shows vitamin E activity in the human body?
Alpha
The process of bone remodeling is known to be dependent on all of the fat-soluble vitamins EXCEPT
vitamin E
Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?
Erythrocyte hemolysis
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E?
deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids
Why are vitamin E deficiencies rarely observed in human beings?
the vitamin is widespread in food
There is some evidence for benefits from vitamin E supplements in all of the following groups EXCEPT
people with problems of sexual impotence
Which of the following conditions may improve with vitamin E therapy?
Intermittent claudication
To convert the number of tocopherol equivalent to alpha-tocopherol, multiply by the factor
0.8
Which of the following is a property of the tocopherols?
Easily destroyed by air and oxygen
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E in foods?
Most convenience foods are poor sources of vitamin E
Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?
Vegetable oils
Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?
Corn oil
In comparison with the RDA for vitamin E, about how many fold higher is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level?
65
Increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for vitamin
E
Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols?
They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats
Which of the following properties do vitamins D and K share?
both are synthesized in the body
What is prothrombin?
A protein needed for blood clot formation
Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?
Prothrombin
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
blood clotting
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
It participates in synthesis of bone proteins
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
Which of the following is a feature of osteocalcin?
It requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals
Of the following, which would most readily reduce a vitamin K deficiency?
Antibiotic therapy
Jennifer has just had a baby. When she brings Thomas home, she regales you with the details of her hospital stay. She mentions that shortly after birth, Thomas received an intramuscular injection of vitamin K, and she wondered why this was done, as it made him cry. You explain that it
prevented possible bleeding events
All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition EXCEPT
gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacterial
K
Which vitamin is routinely given as a single does to newborns?
Vitamin K
Knowing the role of vitamin K in the body, in what oran would you expect to find it in large quantities?
Liver
What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?
Newborns
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
No adverse effects have been reported with high intakes
What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines?
Green leafy vegetables
The major form of vitamin K in food is know as
phylloquinone
Approximately what percentage of the body's store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis?
50
What is the adult AI for vitamin K?
90-120 ug
Which of the following is NOT a fat-soluble vitamin?
Cyanocobalamin
What is a free radical?
A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
Which of the following is a characteristic of free radicals?
They arise from normal metabolic reactions
Substances that promote oxidation are usually termed
prooxidants
Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin C and vitamin E?
Both protect against LDL oxidation