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abstinence violation effect

a response to a lapse in which a person blames himself or herself and concludes that he or she is incapable of resisting high-risk situations

aerobic exercise

sustained activity that elevates the heart rate and increases the body's need for oxygen


literally, antibody generators, or foreign substances that activate the cells of the immune system

coping self-efficacy

beliefs relating to our ability to deal effectively with a stressful stimulus or situation, including pain.

downward comparison

seeing oneself or one's situation as more positive than a standard of comparison, thereby increasing one's sense of well-being

emotion-focused coping

coping strategies directed at minimizing or reducing emotional responses to a stressor


natural opiate-like substances that are involved in pain reduction

general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

selye's description of the body's responses to a stressor, which includes successive phases of alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

harm reduction

a prevention strategy that is designed not to eliminate a problem behavior but to reduce its harmful consequences

health psychology

the study of psychological and behavioral factors in the prevention and treatment of illness and the enhancement of health.

hedonic treadmill

the tendency of people to return to a less extreme level of pleasure or pain with the passage of time following a very positive or very negative life change

life event scales

a measures in which respondents select from a list, those life changes they have experienced over a specific period of time. Such measures are used to assess life stressors as well as positive events.

motivational interviewing

a treatment approach that avoids confrontation and leads clients to their own realization of a problem and increases their motivation to change

multimodal treatments

substance-abuse interventions that combine a number of treatments, such as aversion therapy ad coping skills training.


an inactive or inert substance

posttraumatic growth (PTG)

the experience of positive psychological changes reported by some individuals following a major life crisis or traumatic event.

problem-focused coping

coping strategies that involve direct attempts to confront and master a stressful situation

protective factors

environmental or personal resources that help people fare better in the face of stress

relapse prevention

a treatment approach designed to teach coping skills, increase self-efficacy, and counter the abstinence violation effect, thus reducing the likelihood of relapse


the ability to withstand psychologicla stress

seeking social support

turning to others for assistance or emotional support in times of stress


a term variously used to refer to (1) situations that place strong demands on an organism, (2) the cognitive, physiological, and behavioral responses to such situations, and (3) the ongoing transaction between individuals and demanding situations.


situations that place demands on organisms that tax or exceed their resources

stress response

the pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral reactions to demands that exceed a person's resources

subjective well-being (SWB)

Happiness; the overall degree of satisfaction with one's life

transtheoretical model

a model of behavior change that includes the phases of precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination

Type A behavior pattern

A sense of time urgency, pressured behavior, and hostility that appears to be a risk factor in coronary heart disease

upward comparison

seeing oneself or one's situation as worse off than the standard for comparison

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