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NURS 445 Exam 2: Healthy Aging
Terms in this set (28)
This works, no matter what one's age, and even after decades of practicing unhealthy habits. But it does not work for everyone, all the time.
Exercise and nutrition
The two most widely publicized components of health promotion.
Healthy People 2020
Who set forth four overarching goals, one of which is to "attain high quality longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death."
A behavior-changing tool that borrows concepts from a variety of theories. It relies on the self-management capability of a client, after initial assistance is provided by a clinician or health educator. The client is helped to choose an appropriate behavior change goal and to create and implement a plan to accomplish that goal. The statement of the goal and the plan of action are then written into a contract format.
- First, motivation is very important, and to enhance it requires a large degree of modesty in setting goals and at least a small degree of enjoyment; hence, the emphasis on being more physically active rather than a narrow adherence to a rigid exercise regimen.
- Second, Americans should get at least 30 minutes of physical activity or exercise most days of the week. This new message recommended that American s become more concerned about total calories expended through exercise than about intensity level or duration of continuous exercise.
- It is no longer deemed essential to obtain 30 consecutive minutes of exercise. The accumulating several 5- or 10-minute bouts of physical activity over the course of the day provides beneficial health and fitness effects.
Older adults are in a particularly precarious position because they are more vulnerable to both ______ and ______ than other age groups. The highest percentage of obese adults is in the age group 50-69 years.
Risk factors for Malneurishment
Social isolation, dental problems, medical disease, and medication usage are among the risk factors for malnourishment in older adults.
Nutrition Bull's Eye
The goal of this educational tool is for people to consume the nutritious foods that are listed in the center of it. These foods are low in saturated fat, sugar, and sodium, and high in fiber. They include skim milk, nonfat yogurt, most fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans and legumes, and water-packed tuna.
Neither the average 50% reduction in income at retirement nor the increases in emotional losses, physical losses, and care-giving responsibilities in later life result in a persistent reduction in life satisfaction among most older adults. Older adults are apparently masters of the are of lowering ______ to meet realities.
The one tool for preserving or enhancing the mental health of older adults, which is an autobiographical effort that can be preserved in print, by tape recording, or on videotape. The review is guided by a series of questions in specific life domains, such as work and family, as well as memories further stimulated through a family photo album, other memorabilia, a genealogy, musical selections from an earlier time, or a trek back to an important place in one's past.
It is more likely to be conducted by or with an older adult who is relatively content with his or her life and not seeking therapy than it is to be used therapeutically with an older adult.
May occur as a result of losses that accompany aging such as widowhood, chronic medical conditions and pain, and dependence. Not only can these emotional and physical losses lead to this mental illness, but it can also lead to more physical decline. It increases the likelihood of mortality from cancer and heart disease. The mortality rate for this mental illness with cardiovascular disease is twice that of those without depression. Leads to suicidal behaviors.
The concepts that best capture the degree of this need that an individual must bear are ADLs and IADLs. It is often described as frailty when there are three or more ADL deficiencies, combined with weakness and chronic exhaustion.
Measure the individual's ability to perform basic personal care tasks such as eating, bathing, dressing, using the toilet, getting in or out of a bed or chair, caring for a bowel-control device, and walking (the latter being the most common limitation of these types of tasks).
Measure the individual's ability to perform more complex, multifaceted activities in one's environment, such as home management, managing money, meal preparation, making a phone call, or grocery shopping (the latter being the most common limitation of these types of tasks).
At 65 we expect about ____-____ of our remaining years to be dependent, but by age 85 that increases to two-thirds of our remaining years.
Quality of Life
Functional health combined with with life satisfaction, a feeling of competency, and a perception of social support. Even older person in the nursing homes tend to rate their health more positively than others do.
The broadest perspective through which the quality of life is reflected. It is conceptualized and divided into 7 components.
The best-known older adult medical self-care program. The book provides information and prevention tips on 190 common health problems.
Chronic Disease Self-Management Program
Typically, each program involves about a dozen participants, led by peer leaders who have received 20 hours of training. The peer leaders, like the students, are typically older and have chronic diseases that they contend with. The program consists of six weekly sessions, each about 2.5 hours long, with a content focus on exercise, symptom managemnt, nutrition, fatigue and sleep management, use of medications, managing emotions, community resources, communicating with health professionals, problem solving, and decision making. The program takes place in community settings such as senior centers, churches, and hospitals.
The theoretical basis of the program has been to promote a sense of personal efficacy among participants by using such techniques as guided mastery of skills, peer modeling, reinterpretation of symptoms, social persuasion through group support, and individual self-management guidance.
In addition to improving self-efficacy, colleagues reported reduced emergency room and outpatient visits, and decreased health distress, fatigue, and limitations in role function.
By using this program that takes from just about every other program, chronically ill seniors reported a reduction in number of hospital stays and average length of stay, a reduction in psychotropic medications, and better functioning in ADLs. It is currently divided into two programs:
1. Enhance Fitness
2. Enhance Wellness
An exercise program that focuses on stretching, flexibility, balance, low impact aerobics, and strength training. Certified instructors have undergone special training in fitness for older adults. Classes last an hour, involve 10 to 25 people , and participants can track their progress through a series of functional evaluations. People who complete 6 months improve significantly.
Focuses on mental health, with an emphasis on lessening symptoms of depression and other mood problems, developing a sense of greater self-reliance, and lowering the need for drugs that affect thinking or motions. It typically consists of a nurse and social worker working with an individual. It may reduce depression 1 year after the program.
Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease
Program designed for reversing heart disease. It recommends a vegetarian diet with fat intake of 10% or less of total calories, moderate aerobic exercise at least three times a week, yoga and meditation an hour a day, group support sessions, and smoking cessation. Results of the program report blockages in arteries that have decreased in size and blood flow has improved in as many as 82% of their heart patients. It may take highly motivated individuals and significant medical and health support for the model program to be useful to others.
Benson's Mind/Body Medical Institute Program
For individuals feeling the negative effects of stress this program teaches them to elicit the relaxation response, a western version of medication. It treats patients with a combination of relaxation response techniques, proper nutrition and exercise, and the refraining of negative thinking patterns.
Strong for Life Program
A home-based exercise program for disabled and nondisabled older adults. It focuses on strength and balance and provides an exercis video, a trainer's manual, and a user's guide.
Re-Engagement Instead of Retirement:
In 2011, baby boomers began turning age 65 and started becoming the gerontology boomers. Most will not disengage from life upon retirement. This cohort of older adults is the:
- Longest lived
- Best educated
- Most engaged
- Largest cohort of retirees
(Ways older adults can re-engage):
2,000 older adults are tutors and mentors for 20,000 low-income children in urban public elementary schools and afterschool programs in 19 cities, boosting students' academic performance and enhancing older adults' well-being.
- Revolution in long-term care.
- First constructed in Mississippi.
- Look like surrounding homes in the neighborhood.
- 10 residents have private room and bath with shared areas for cooking, socializing, and garden.
- Promotes autonomy.
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