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50 terms

Anatomy Lab 8

STUDY
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List the Tarsal Bones
Calcaneus (heel), Talus (ankle), navicular, lateral cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, medial cuneiform, cuboid
interosseous membrane
a strong fibrous sheet that connects interosseous margin of the tibia and the fibula, stabilizes this junction and provides attachment of the muscles
Tibial Nerve
supplies posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, as it passes medial to the ankle it divides into the medial and lateral plantar nerves
common fibular nerve
supplies the anterior (deep branch) and the lateral (superficial branch) compartments of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot (deep branch)
anterior tibial artery
supplies the anterior compartment of the leg, comes from the popliteal artery
posterior tibial artery
supplies the posterior compartment of the leg, comes from the popliteal artery
fibular artery
branch of the posterior tibial artery and supplies the lateral compartment of the leg
dorsalis pedis artery
supplies the dorsal side of the foot, comes from the anterior tibial artery
medial and lateral plantar arteries
supply the medial and lateral plantar surfaces, comes from the posterior tibial artery
Tibialis Anterior
muscle of anterior leg, innervation: deep fibular nerve, action: dorsiflexes ankle and inverts foot
extensor digitorum longus
muscle of the anterior leg, innervation: deep fibular nerve, action: extends lateral 4 digits and dorsiflexes ankle
extensor halluces longus
muscle of the anterior leg, innervation: deep fibular nerve, action: extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle
fibularis longus
muscle of lateral leg, innervation: superficial fibular nerve, action: everts foot and plantarflexes ankle
fibularis brevis
muscle of the lateral leg, innervation: superficial fibular nerve, action: everts foot and plantarflexes ankle
gastrocnemius
muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: plantarflexes ankle, raises heel when walking, flexes knee at knee joint
soleus
muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: plantarflexes ankle, steadies leg on foot
popliteus
muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flexes knee, medially rotates tibia of unplanted limb
flexor halluces longus
muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flexes great toe, plantarflexes ankle
flexor digitorum longus
muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flexes lateral 4 digits, plantarflexes ankle
tibialis posterior
muscle of posterior leg, innervation: tibial nerve, action: plantarflexes ankle, inverts foot
extensor hallucis brevis
muscle of dorsum of foot, innervation: deep fibular nerve, action: aids in extending great toe and metatarsophalangeal joint
extensor digitorum brevis
muscle of dorsum of foot, innervation: aids in extending 3 medial toes at metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
abductor hallucis
mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: abducts and flexes 1st digit
flexor digitorum brevis
mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flexes lateral 4 digits
abductor digiti minimi
mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: abducts and flexes little toe
quadratus plantae
mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flex 4 digits
flexor hallucis brevis
mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flex proximal phalanx of big toe
adductor hallucis
mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: adduct toe
flexor digiti minimi brevis
mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: flex proximal phalanx of pink
plantar interossei (3 muscles)
mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: adduct digits 3-5, flex at MTP joint
dorsal interossei (4 muscles)
mucle of plantar surface of foot, innervation: tibial nerve, action: adduct digits 2-4, flex at MTP joint
lateral ligaments of ankle joint
anterior talofibular ligament, posterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament
medial ligament of ankle joint
deltoid ligaments
muscles that cause dorsiflexion of ankle
tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius
muscles that cause plantarflexion of ankle
gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, plantaris
muscles that invert foot
tibialis posterior, tibialis anterior
muscles that evert foot
fibularis longus, fibularis brevis
most frequently injured ligament in the body
anterior talofibular ligaments - inversion sprain
target cell
cells that respond to a specific hormone, has specific receptors on membrane
thyroid gland hormones
calcitonin- decreases blood calcuym by stimulating bone deposition, thyroid hormone - increases heat production/stimulates metabolic activity
parathyroid gland hormones
parathyroid hormone - increases blood calcium by promoting calcium release form bone, stimulating calcium absorption by gut, increasing calcium reabsorption from the kidney
pancrease-islet cells hormones
glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, pancreatic peptide
adrenal cortex hormones
corticosteroid
adrenal medulla hormones
epinephrine, norepinephrine
Thyroid
composed of 2 lobes joined by a central mass/isthmus, located in the neck, makes thyroid hormone produced by follicular cells, and makes calcitonin produced by parafollicular/C cells, composed of 1 layer of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounding spherical follicles, center of each follicle is filled with glycoprotein gel called colloid, when active follicles appear small and colloid has ruffled border/hardly any, if inactive lots of colloid,
Parathyroid
usually four separate glands, embedded within posterior surface of each lobe of thyroid gland, has chief cells (most cells, small round nuclei, produce Parathyroid hormone) and oxyphils (red staining, large)
Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans
stains lighter than exocrine cells, 3 major types of islets each secrete different hormone, columnar make up the acini of this tissue, the islets are made up of cuboidal
Adrenal gland
composed of cortex and medulla, cortex has 3 layers - zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis; outer cortex=endocrine cells secrete steroid hormones, medulla has modified neuronal cells (chromaffin) that secrete catacholamines, innervated by preganglionic fibers of sympa, covered with thick capsule
adrenal cortex
divided into 3 zones:
1) zona glomerulosa - arranged in loops and ovoid groups, nuclei round and stain darkly, contains lipid droplets, produces mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
2)zona fasciculata - largest zone, long parallel cords or columns of large cuboidal cells, produce glucocorticoids (cortisol)
3) zona reticularis - branching and anastamosing columns of smaller cuboidal cells, produce sex steroids (DHEA)
nothing separates this from the medulla cells
adrenal medulla
10% of the gland - assymetrically placed in the gland - large cells organized into ovoid clusters surrounded by fenestrated blood vessels, cells are modified post-ganglionic neurons called chromaffin cells - produce catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine), stimulated by sympa preganglia