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Radiography - Chapter 18 - Identifying & Correcting Undiagnosed Radiographs

Radiography - Chapter 18 - Identifying & Correcting Undiagnosed Radiographs
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1. Image receptor is placed correctly to record the area of interest
2. Equal amount of maxilla and mandible recorded
3. The occlusal plane is straight or slightly curved upward toward the posterior
4. Most posterior contact point between adjacent teeth has been recorded
5. The occlusal/incisal plane of the teeth is parallel to the edge of the image receptor
What are some characterisitics of a quality bitewing xray?
1. Image receptor is placed correctly to record the area of interest
2. Entire tooth is recorded + 2mm beyond the incisal/occlusal edge
3. The occlusal/incisal plane of the teeth is parallel with the edge of the image receptor
4. Embossed "DOT" is in the slot
5. FMX - each tooth should be recorded at least once & preferable twice
What are some characterisitics of a quality periapical xray?
These errors occurs before the actual xray is even taken and can effect the quality independent of all other factors
Example: seat position is off or patient's head is not on the headrest
How does your TECHNIQUE effect the chance of a radiographic error?
Chemicals could be contaminated or old, speed of processor could be too fast or too slow
How does PROCESSING effect the chance of a radiographic error?
Fingerprints, dipping into the wrong chemicals at the wrong time. Bending the film etc..
How does HANDLING effect the chance of a radiographic error?
1. Incorrect positioning of the image receptor
2. Incorrect positioning of the tube head and PID
3. Incorrect exposure factors
4. Miscellaneous errors in exposure technique
Name some common xray technique errors
A. Failure to record:
1. Anterior structures
2. Posterior structures
3. Apical structures
4. Coronal structures
B. Slanting or tilting of the occlusal plane
C. Reversed image
D. Incorrect positioning of the film ID dot
What are some outcomes of incorrect positioning of the image receptor?
Be sure you get an image that includes the canines
When lining up a bitewing xray you accidently do NOT record the anterior structures. How should you line up the xray on the retake to fix this error?
Be sure to get an image of the distal of 2nd molar & 3rd molars
When lining up a bitewing xray you accidently do NOT record the posterior structures. How should you line up the xray on the retake to fix this error?
Be sure to INCREASE your vertical angulation
When lining up a bitewing xray you accidently do NOT record the apical structures. How should you line up the xray on the retake to fix this error?
Be sure to DECREASE your vertical angulation
When lining up a bitewing xray you accidently do NOT record the coronal structures. How should you line up the xray on the retake to fix this error?
Corrective action: Turn it the right way :) Cause: Hurried
How do you fix a reversed film packet exposure or a mispositioning of the ID DOT?
Elongation or foreshortening of the image
Improper vertical angulation causes __?
Increase the vertical angulation
How do you fix enlongation of an image?
Decrease the vertical angulation
How do you fix foreshortening of an image?
The central ray does not hit the image receptor in the middle
Conecut occurs when?
1. KVP is low
2. Ma is low
3. Impulses are low
4. Time is too low
An image will appear light if __?
1. KVP is high
2. Ma's are high
3. Impulses are high
4. Time is to great
An image will appear dark if ___?
never have been exposed
A clear or blank image is caused by?
Using the same film and exposing it twice. If you use the sheet provided, this will not happen!
A double image is caused by?
Patient movement - Corrected by having the patient bite down more in the next shot!
Poor definition in an xray is usually caused by ___?
1. Old or weakened developer
2. Time was too short
3. The developer is too cold
A lighter image caused by a development error is due to __?
1. Developer was too hot
2. Impulses or the time was set too high
A darker image causes by development error is due to __?
1. Putting fixer in before developer
2. Letting the film sit in a warm rinse before placing into the fixer
If a blank or a clear image occurs due to a processing error it is likely due to __?
The developer solution is low
If you get a partial image due to processing error it is likely what?
2 films being stuck to one another
If your film turns green it is likely due to __?
1. Black/White spots
2. Brown images
3. Stains
Signs of chemical contamination are ?
Developer was splashed onto the film
If you have black spots on your film it is likely?
Fixer was splashed onto the film
If you have white spots on your film it is likely?
Manual improper washing (or rinsing)
If you have brown images on your film it is likely?
Dirty tanks or rollers
If you have stains on your film it is likely?
It has been exposed to white light prior to processing
If your film comes out black it is likely due to __?
Dirty rollers or bent film
If you have black pressure marks on your film it is likely due to __?
Scratching before the film was processed
If you have white lines on your film it is likely due to __?
static electricity
Thin black lines on your film is usually due to __?
Touching a film with bare hands or powdered or damp gloves
Smudged film is usually caused by __?
Humidity which causes the black protective paper to stick to the film
When black paper is stuck to the film this is usually caused by __?
Film sitting in the same room that exposure occurs in
Radiation fog is caused by __?
A light leak within the darkroom area
White light fog is caused by __?
The wrong kind of light in the darkroom or the light is closer than 6'
Safelight fog is caused by __?
1. Cell phone lights
2. Indiglo from watches
Some examples of misc. light fog are __?
Humidity and temp or too high in the storage area
Storage fog is caused by __?
1. Sitting in developer for too long
2. Contaminated solutions
3. High temps
Chemical fog is caused by __?
The emulsion in the film goes bad
Aged film fog occurs when __?
Settings being "off" which effects the pixels and consequent resolution of the film
Digital radiographic noise is caused by __?