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Terms in this set (61)
Water dissolves more substances than any other substance due to water's polarity. Water will not dissolve non-polar molecules like oil and wax.
Water molecules stick to other water molecules. Think of how water runs down a windshield and when it hits another drop of water, the drop gets larger. Water is sticky and elastic and tends to clump together rather than spreading into a thin film.
Water molecules stick to other molecules. Think of how water droplets cling to the side of a window. AD-hesive tape sticks to other surfaces.
Water molecules stick together at the surface and form a "skin" over the top of a pond. This is how water striders skate across a lake.
Water has a positive end and a negative end. Think of the N and S poles of the Earth. The water molecule is charged like this as well.
Water's density changes with temperature. Cold water is more dense and warm water is less dense. Any substance that has a lower density, like oil, will float on water. Frozen water is less dense than liquid water, thus ice will float.
The upward force water exerts on an object. Buoyancy is the force which causes a boat to float.
Water is the only substance found in all 3 states on Earth: solid, liquid, and gas (steam). Water freezes at 32 F and boils at 212 F. Temperature of a water system can be increased due to pollution or the solar radiation.
Specific Heat of Water
Water has a high specific heat so it can absorb a lot of heat energy before the water temperature increases. Water heats and cools slowly.
Water Available for Human Consumption
Of all the water on Earth, only about 1% is available for human consumption. 99% of all water is not accessible to humans.
Water Distribution on Earth
The majority of water, 97%, on Earth is salt water. Most all of the Earth's fresh water is frozen ice caps at the North and South poles.
Water can flow upwards against the force of gravity. Water moves up a tree trunk--from the roots to the top of the tree.
River Basin or Watershed
An area of land that is drained into one main river. We live in the Yadkin-Pee Dee River so all creeks in this area drain into that river. NC has 16 different basins which are formed due to elevations in the state. Rivers in NC empty into the Atlantic Ocean.
Buffer or Riparian Zone
An area along a river with vegetation to help control the amount of mud/silt entering a river due to rain.
Estuary or Salt Marsh
When a river empties into the ocean, the estuary is a mixture of the two water systems. Estuaries are slightly salty. Estuaries act like a sponge and soak up pollution from the rivers before it enters the ocean. When ocean water enters an estuary, the estuary becomes more salty. Estuaries are home to birds, fish, turtles, etc and are a haven/breeding ground.
The zone of the ocean closest to the shore where most ocean organisms are found. The population density of marine life is less farther away from shore.
Measure of salts in the ocean. Salts are carried to ocean by rivers and by new crust being formed on the ocean floor at mid-ocean ridges. Salts can be impacted by CO2 levels. Warm water tends to be more salty due to evaporation. Rain and melting snow can make water less salty due to dilution. As salt increases, dissolved oxygen decreases.
Carbon Dioxide in Ocean
The ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from our atmosphere which we put there from burning fossil fuels. This absorption makes the ocean more acidic which could one day harm sea life, coral reefs, etc.
Density in the ocean varies due to water temperature and salinity levels. Cold, salty water is most dense. Warm, less salty water is least dense.
Sea Surface Temperature
Water is warmer at the equator due to sunlight and colder at the poles. The aphotic zone is very deep and the sunlight does not penetrate. The photic zone is the sun-lit portion where light penetrates.
Due to SONAR, we know the ocean has plains, mountains, volcanoes, basins, etc.
Sea shells are made of calcium carbonate which fall to the sea floor and act as a buffer keeping the ocean's acidity in balance just like an Alka Seltzer.
A fan shaped mass of soils and material deposited by a river which empties into a large body of water. These can best be seen from the air. Flooding increases the size of deltas which can impede or slow down river flow.
A movement of cold, nutrient rich water from the bottom of the ocean to the surface. Upwelling brings oxygen and plankton to the surface. Due to uneven heating patterns on Earth, upwelling currents occur. In an upwelling current, fish are abundant.
Zooplankton, Diatoms, Phytoplankton are examples. Plankton are microscopic organisms that are vital to the oceanic food web. They are producers and provide O2 for the ecosystem.
All ocean organisms which are capable of swimming. Most marine organisms live about 100 m below the surface.
All marine life that live on the bottom of the ocean. Few creatures have adaptations to live in the deep ocean.
Terrestrial Food Web
A land-based food web. Food webs and the animals in each are connected and depend on one another for survival.
Aquatic Food Web
A food web based on a body of water like a pond or the Artic Sea. Each energy level provides food energy to the above level.
Are most numerous in a food web. They make their own food through photosynthesis examples are plants and algae. Autotrophs make their own food.
The largest organism in the food web is the organism most likely to accumulate the most pollution or toxins.
An organism that gets energy by eating another organism. Hetertrophs are consumers.
An organism in a food web that breaks down dead and decaying organisms like bacteria and fungi.
The amount of oxygen available in water for living organisms. Measuring oxygen levels will assess water quality. Oxygen gets into water by wind, waves. Cold, deep water holds more oxygen molecules. So, water depth and temperature can impact dissolved oxygen levels.
Water's pH is neutral at 7. Boggs tend to be more acidic due to decaying plant and animal material. pH meters can measure acidity.
Nitrates are a type of pollution that enters water systems due to solid waste from humans or animals. Nitrates will lower dissolved oxygen levels and can result in fish kills.
The amount of suspended particles (sand, silt, mud) in water. Can be caused by boat traffic, storms, deforestation, improper planting. High turbidity decreases the amount of sunlight in a water system. Can be measured from a plane.
Living organisms that indicate the health of a water system. By direct observation, you can quickly assess bio-indicators like crayfish, insect larvae, tadpoles, etc.
Pollution that has a source that can be identified. If a waste water pipe emptied directly into a river, this would be a source of pollution you could point to.
Non point pollution does not have a source that can be identified. This is usually in the form of run-off from roads, parking lots, fields.
Rains can wash off excess nutrients, fertilizers, and pollution from farm fields, golf courses, parking lots and carry them into ground or surface water.
A spring which bubbles at the ground surface. Usually not as safe a groundwater to drink as pollution can reach surface waters.
Aquifer or Well
An area of rock underground that stores water. It can be drilled into and used for consumption. Landfills are lined with materials to prevent leaching into underground water aquifers.
Has stages: precipitation (rain), condensation (water cooling), runoff (water flowing with gravity), evaporation (water's form being changed into a gas). Most evaporation and precipitation happens over the oceans as they cover ¾ of the Earth. The sun is responsible or provides the energy for the water cycle.
Processes water to remove waste, impurities, microorganisms.
Screens the large pieces of waste like trash from water.
Adds oxygen to the water so that helpful bacteria can consume some of the pollution
Particles are allowed to settle to the bottom of the water tank which are then scooped up and removed.
A measure of how safe the water is for human consumption. We have many indicators like pH, dissolved oxygen, and nitrates. We constantly monitor water quality.
Using sound waves to make images of the ocean floor. SONAR first discovered during WWII while looking for enemy submarines.
Water systems can be monitored by satellite. Water has a high reflectance or it bounces back reflected light. We can monitor remote (not accessible by humans) places on earth using satellites or remote sensing.
Actually going to the site to verify a photograph or image. Ground truthing can uncover non-point pollution like runoff
Used to assess water systems. Photographs can uncover non-point pollution, turbidity, monitor deltas, hurricane damage etc.
Scientists use submarines or submersibles to research the abyssal plain or deep ocean as the water pressures are too great for humans.
A clear plastic tube which is used to collect lake or pond water. Used to measure how many suspended particles are in water.
An airplane can bounce sonar beams off the ocean floor to measure ocean depth or study the ocean floor profile.
A plastic disk with dark and light squares which is lowered into the water and used to monitor turbidity or suspended particles in water.
EPA and Clean Water Acts of 1972
Environmental Protection Agency-federal gov't agency to protect human health. Clean Water act are laws passed to protect surface waters in the US.
New industries, tourists, large populated cities can impact water quality but these bring in money into our economy.
All the water on Earth contained in oceans, glaciers, atmosphere, underground, water stored in plants and animals, etc.
The last step in the water treatment process. It kills microorganisms and makes the water safe to drink again.
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