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London Economic Conference

International economic conference on stabilizing currency sabotaged
by FDR.

the Philippines

Nation to which the U.S. promised independence in the Tydings-
McDuffie Act of 1934.

Good Neighbor policy

FDR's repudiation of Theodore Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe
Doctrine, stating his intention to work cooperatively with Latin
American nations.

Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937, 1939

A series of laws enacted by Congress in the mid-1930s that attempted
to prevent any American involvement in future overseas wars

Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939

Conflict between the rebel Fascist forces of General Franco and the
Loyalist government that caused a major test of U.S. neutrality

Quarantine Speech

Roosevelt's 1937 speech that proposed strong U.S. measures against
overseas aggressors.

Munich Conference of 1938

European diplomatic conference in 1938 where Britain and France
practice unsuccessful "appeasement" of Hitler.


Term for the British-French policy of attempting to prevent war by
granting German demands.

Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

Leading American group advocating support for Britain's fight against

America First Committee

Leading isolationist group, which advocated that America focus on
continental defense and non-involvement with the European war

Lend-Lease Bill

Controversial 1941 law that made America the "arsenal of
democracy" by providing supposedly temporary military material
assistance to Britain.


A devastating night of Nazi attacks on Jewish businesses and
synagogues that signaled a deepening of anti-Semitism and caused
revulsion in the United States.

Atlantic Charter

U.S.-British agreement of August 1941 to promote democracy and
establish a new international organization for peace.

Rueben Jones

U.S. destroyer sunk by German submarines off the coast of Iceland in
October 1941, with the loss of over a hundred men.

Pearl Harbor

Major American Pacific naval base destroyed in a surprise attack in
December 1941.

Cordell Hull

FDR's secretary of state, who promoted reciprocal trade agreements, especially with Latin America

Adolf Hitler

Fanatical fascist leader of Germany whose aggressions forced the United States to abandon its neutrality

Benito Mussolini

The lesser partner of the Rome-Berlin Axis who invaded Ethiopia and joined the war against France and Britain

Gerald Nye

Instigator of 1934 Senate hearings that castigated World War I munitions manufacturers as "merchants of death"

Francisco Franco

Fascist rebel against the Spanish Loyalist government

Abraham Lincoln brigade

Young American volunteers who went to fight for Loyalist Spain against Franco's Spanish fascist rebels


Small East European democracy betrayed into Hitler's hands at Munich


East European nation whose September 1939 invasion by Hitler set off World War II in Europe


Nation whose sudden fall to Hitler in 1940 pushed the United States closer to direct aid to Britain

Charles A. Lindbergh

Leader of the America First organization and chief spokesman for U.S. isolationism

Wendell Wilkie

Dynamic dark horse Republican presidential nominee who attacked FDR only on domestic policy

Wniston Churchill

Dynamic dark horse Republican presidential nominee who attacked FDR only on domestic policy

Joseph Stalin

Russian dictator who first helped Hitler destroy Poland before becoming a victim of Nazi aggression in 1941


North Atlantic nation near whose waters U.S. destroyers came under Nazi submarine attack


Site of a naval base where Japan launched a devastating surprise attack on the United States

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