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RPI Gen Psych Final Fall 2015
Terms in this set (192)
Natural selection has favored species that reproduce sexually because sexual reporduction
leads to genetic diversity, which is adaptive.
If you were a psychologist who wanted to explain the phenomenon of road rage, what would be your first step?
The more that numbers in a set of numbers differ from each other, the larger the
Who disproved Descartes' hydraulic model of muscle contraction by showing that they contracted in response to electrical stimulation?
Modern cognitive psychologists have demonstrated that
behaviors based on mental images can be objectively measured.
If two variables are positively correlated, then in a scatterplot we should notice the high values of one variable are associated with ________ values of the other variable.
Heritability is the
amount of variability in a particular trait, in a particular population, at a particular time that is due to genetic factors.
The totality of the genetic material in a species is known as its
Who first established that people are able to distinguish between differences in sensory experiences such as differences in brightness or loudness in ways that follow orderly laws?
Suppose your roommate snaps at you just as you arrive at your apartment. She quickly apologizes saying, "I'm sorry, I'm just a big grumpy today." Which of the following statements about your roommate is true?
Her grumpiness does not explain her behavior.
In Descartes's view, animals were nothing more than
Which area of psychological research focuses on how cognitive or social features of human behavior may have provided early humans with a competitive advantage over other species?
Molecular biology is to _______ as behavior genetics is to _______.
genetic markers; segregation analysis
A farmer who allows only horses to breed with other certain horses is practicing
Which variable is measured in an experiment?
The dependent variable
Which area of psychological research is most likely study behaviors such as courting, mating, and parenting?
Inferential statistics are useful in telling researchers that the results of their experiments are
due to chance or not.
Dr. Johnston is a psychologist who consults with different companies to improve the working conditions of their employees. Which type of psychologist does Dr. Johnston best represent?
A single-blind study means that
participant expectations will not be different between groups.
How do fraternal twins develop?
When two different sperm fertilize two different ova
The emphasis of functionalism was squarely on
the biological significance of behavior.
Professor Lee wants to examine the effects of two different teaching methods on student performance. She uses the first method of teaching in her 1st-year introductory course and the second method in her 2nd-year advanced course. She finds that student performances are better in the advanced class than in the introductory class. She concludes that the second teaching method is superior. What is the problem with her conclusion?
There is a confounding of students' year in school with teaching methods.
Which reproductive strategy involves high female and low male parental investment?
The defining characteristic of hominids evident in fossils dating to about 3.5 million years ago is
You want to know how your fellow students feel about raising student fees. You select a representative group from the student directory and send each person in this group a questionnaire. What is this group called?
A special diet is instrumental in saving lives of children who have
Professor Hargrove is interested in the causes of road rage. As part of his research, he is planning to manipulate the temperature inside a car and then measure whether the drivers become angry. Which step of the scientific method is he demonstrating?
Designing an experiment
Regarding education, Itard and Montessori believed in _______ whereas Thorndike emphasized ________.
an individualized approach; a focus on tasks everyone needed to master.
Descartes is to _______ as Locke is to ________.
To prevent the order in which stimuli are presented to participants during an experiment from biasing the results, an experimenter should make sure that she or he uses a _______ procedure.
Fritsch and Hitzig discovered that the body appeared to be "mapped" on the surface of the brain. They used the
method of electrical brain stimulation.
Behavior geneticists can trace mutations in artificial selection studies by means of _______, genetically inactive of a chromosome that occur predictably with nearby genes.
A general criticism of selectionism is that it
cannot account for all of the steps of the evolutionary process.
Rearrangement of chromosomes is to _______ as alteration of DNA sequence within a single gene is to _______.
chromosomal aberration; mutation
A consequence of the fact that some members of a species produce more offspring than other members of the species is
Rosemary, a first-year graduate student in psychology, believes that human beings are capable of positive growth and can make their own choices. She is most likely to be attracted to the ________ approach to psychology.
What is the reproductive success of individuals who share the same genes called?
The determination of whether the results of a study are statistically significant occurs during which step of the scientific method?
The evaluation of the hypothesis through examination of the data collected
Descriptive statistics provide all of the following EXCEPT
measures of statistical significance.
Donald Hebb believed that both behavior and mental phenomena could be related directly to
Which of the following approaches to psychology rejected the idea that mental events are an appropriate subject matter for psychology?
Which type of selection reinforces characteristics that permit survival?
If the results of an experiment were statistically significant, we may conclude that the
results were probably not due to chance.
Dr. Zukov is studying the effects of alcohol on manual dexterity. Group A is given 250 milliliters of an alcoholic beverage to drink; Group B is given 500 milliliters of the same beverage to drink; Group C is given 750 milliliters of this beverage to drink; and Group D is given a placebo to drink. Which group is the control group?
Debriefing might be delayed if the researcher fears that it
could inform potential participants about the nature of the study before it is completed.
Who is considered the father of psychology?
An operational definition
must remain constant throughout the experiment.
Carbon-14 dating is based on the idea that this unstable isotope of carbon decays at a stable rate over time. What does it decay to?
The primary neurotransmitter released by motor neurons is
In the blocking design, a CS that is presented during Conditioning Phase 1
is also presented simultaneously with a different CS during Conditioning Phase 2.
Jane has an eye that is too long. Therefore, she is ________ and wears _________ corrective lenses.
If a small weight is placed on your motionless arm, you will eventually stop feeling its presence because sensory ending that respond to pressure
only respond to movement.
When driving at night, it is more difficult to see if the driver of an oncoming car does not dim the high beams because
bright light bleaches the molecules of photopigments faster than regeneration can occur.
Pavlov paired the sound of a metronome with food. This technique produced learning--that is, a change in the
environmental guidance of behavior.
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays an important role in all of the following EXCEPT
Any neutral stimulus that reliably precedes a stimulus such as food that elicits a response that is called a(n) _______ stimulus.
An animal who has been reinforced on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement will repsond
at a slow, steady rate.
The chief functions of the frontal lobe involve
moving and planning.
Brain is to _______ as spinal cord is to _______.
A neuron that excites or inhibits another neuron by releasing a transmitter substance is called a ________ neuron.
One of the functions of the myelin sheath is to
insulate axons from each other.
Which two regions of the body are most sensitive to touch and pressure?
The fingertips and lips
Sometimes we can detect the presence of very weak stimuli and sometimes we can not. This is due to the
inherent variability in the activity of our nervous systems.
Homeostasis and the control of species-typical behaviors are functions of the
Taste and flavor differ with respect to the fact that
flavor includes the texture and odor of food.
One important function of the sympathetic nervous system is to
increase the flow of blood to the muscles at important times.
The _______ consist(s) of cranial and spinal nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord.
peripheral nervous system
The term "contralateral" means
Not reacting to the door when the phone rings (but only reacting to the phone) and not reacting to the phone when the doorbell rings )but reacting to the doorbell) are examples of
Spontaneous recovery is said to occur when a
previously extinguished CR suddenly reappears after an interval of time has passed.
_______ uses a coil of wires in the shape of an 8 to stimulate neurons in the cerebral cortex and this disrupt normal activity in a specific brain region.
Pavlov's procedure is referred to as classical because
it was the first laboratory procedure used to study learning systematically.
The conditioned emotional response procedure introduced by Estes and Skinner is also known as __________, since following tone-shock pairings, the presentation of the tone by itself evokes emotional responses that interfere with food-reinforced lever pressing.
Skinner recognized an important difference between Pavlov's and Thorndike's procedures, namely, that in Pavlov's procedure
once the eliciting stimulus is selected, the choice is then whether it will be used to strengthen or weaken the behavior that it follows.
The backward procedure can be successful in producing a CR is
the UR has a long duration.
The conversion of the energy produced by falling water into electrical power at a hydroelectric dam is analogous to
the space immediately behind the ___________ is filled with a fluid called the ___________.
cornea; aqueous humor
A stimulus becomes a conditioned reinforcer
by being paired with a reinforcer.
That a rat will press a lever to obtain electrical stimulation to a particular region of the brain suggests that
the particular area is involved in reward.
Pastel green is an example of a(n) __________ color.
All of the following environmental stimuli are forms of mechanical energy, EXCEPT
Negative after images occur because of
a rebound effect in retinal ganglion cells.
Which kind of eye movements ensures that the image of an object will fall on corresponding portions of each retina?
The receptor cells for smell are located in the
Which of the following is an activity controlled by the right cerebral hemisphere?
Irritation and other generalized responses occur because some of the stimuli that are produced by another person's behavior
are the same as those stimuli produced when the observer engages in the behavior.
Which of the following best summarizes the cellular mechanisms of reinforcement?
Change to the efficiency of presynaptic neurons to activate postsynaptic neurons
An orienting response make the detection of a stimulus
John has consumed a drug that retards the rate of reuptake. This will have the effect of
prolonging the effects of the transmitter substance.
The finding that Siamese fighting fish are likely to win a fight if they are first given a signal regarding the presence of an intruder in their territory, suggests that
classical conditioning has important adaptive functions.
Which of the following us used to produce a brain lesion?
Loudness is to the _________ of a sound wave as timbre is to the _________ of a sound wave.
The reason a violin sounds different than a clarinet is that they
each have a different timbre.
What happens first when an action potential reaches the axon terminal?
Calcium channel opens
Which of the following is an assumption that psychologists make in their study of behavior?
We want to control behavior
If a person's brain receives conflicting information from the two inner ears, the person may experience a condition known as
As she was driving to work, Margie was in a serious auto accident. When she woke up in the hospital, she could not remember anything about the accident or what had happened to her just before it took place. Margie's failure to memory illustrates ___________ amnesia.
According to Gestalt law of common fate,
elements moving in the same direction will be perceived as belonging together.
Unlike short-term memory, long-term memory
is relatively durable.
In terms of depth perception, __________ is a monocular cue, whereas ___________ is a binocular cue.
In the __________ mnemonic system, you memorize a list of items by putting them into a coherent story.
Suppose you are lying on your back in the middle of a big, grassy field watching a flock of geese fly overhead against a backdrop of big, fluffy clouds. In this scene, psychologists would consider the ________ to be the "ground."
In recall, the tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list rather than those in the middle is called the ________ effect.
The visual cortex consists of the primary area and two levels of association cortex, one
that surrounds the primary area and the other divided between the parietal and temporal lobes.
Following severe brain damage, Paris cannot speak voluntarily or understand others who are talking to him. However, he can sometimes repeat words said to him and can complete poems that he knows. He has a condition known as
While looking out a window you can make out the details of nearby objects very easily. As you look at objects farther away, you have a more difficult time in making out the same details. The situation illustrates the cue to depth called
_________ is to alertness as __________ is to stage 4 sleep.
Beta activity; delta activity
Which of the following is FALSE?
A chunk contains 7 plus or minus 2 items.
Our ability to distinguish between movements of a retinal image caused by eye movements and those caused by an object's movements depends on
the brain's involvement in moving eyes.
occurs when recent learning interferes with previous learning.
The textbook cites all of the following as causes as anterograde amnesia EXCEPT
While talking to his friend, Harvey glanced away. When he looked back he failed to notice that his friend had put on a hat. Harvey demostrated
According to Freud, dreams represent
The brain region that has been implicated in the control of slow-wave sleep is the
Whe Ganel and Goodale asked participants to judge whether wooden blocks of varying lengths were "wide" or "narrow," participants found the task difficult. When asked to grasp the blocks across the middle
participants' grasping actions were not affected by variations in the length of the blocks.
When you study for a test by reading and rereading your textbook, making an outline of the chapter, and going over (and over) the key terms in the chapter, you are encoding information using the ________ processing.
Which stages of sleep are referred to as a slow-wave sleep?
3 and 4
Whitney has to remember a poem for school. She does this by thinking about its meaning and the ways in which its structure enhances that meaning. She is using ______________ processing.
________ is to top-down as _________ is to bottom-up.
If you gently push on the side of your eye with your finger the scene before you will appear
to move because the eye muscles did not produce the movement.
Parallel processors work
simultaneously at several different tasks.
One of the first things that a patient will report following the split-brain operation is that
her or his left hand seems to have a mind of its own.
According to Biederman, geons provide a way to analyze 3D objects
in terms of a universal set of feature detectors.
Carlos saw a horse in a pasture. The image he has of the horse in his visual working memory
is a combination of his version of a prototypical horse and the specific details of this particular horse.
The case study of the patient K.C., who suffered a closed-head injury at age 30, suggests that semantic and episodic memory
are separate systems in the brain.
Failure to retrieve information when more recently learned information interferes is called
The essential factor in hypnotizing a susceptible person is that he or she be
aware that he or she is going to be hypnotized.
Lee's vision is completely in shades of black and white with no perception of other hues. He has a condition termed
In Sperling's research, if the tone was delayed for more than one second, the participants' recall of the letters
American children appeared to have better memories for a Maya story than Maya children did. However, cultural styles of ________ may account for this difference.
talking to adults
Extensive research investigating the effects of sleep deprivation indicates that
there are no long-term physiological stress effects associated with sleep deprivation.
A failure to remember what occurred during hypnosis as a result of a suggestion made by the hypnotist during the hypnotic state is called posthypnotic
Ami is looking at a gray house. One wall is in the sun; another wall is in the shade. To Ami though, the two walls appear to be the same shade of gray. Amy's perception is an example of
When measuring the electrophysiology of a sleeper's eye movements, the output is an
Which of the following is an example of the cocktail-party phenomenon?
The ability to attend selectively to a particular conversation at a party.
Jaunae has been staring at a fill-in-the-blank question on an exam trying to remember the term. She knows it beings with "b" but can't seem to bring the word itself to mind. She is showing _________ and has a ________ percent chance of coming up with the right answer.
the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon; 50
The _________ is the specific part of the retina to which a module in the primary visual cortex responds.
Computers based on the serial processing of information
require more time to execute complex tasks than simpler ones.
A task that requires a person to listen to one of two messages presented simultaneously, one to each ear, is called a _______ task.
Research by Segall and colleagues found that members of _______ cultures were more susceptible to the Muller-Lyer illusion.
Your doctor breaks the bad news to you: Your hypocretin-secreting neurons no longer function due to an autoimmune disorder you inherited from your parents. What do you likely suffer from?
Dorsal stream is to ventral stream as
posterior parietal cortex is to inferior temporal cortex.
What was the 20-digit number we memorized in class, BACKWARDS?
The __________ acts like a super-clock, keeping all of our internal clocks synchronized.
Prozac inhibits the reuptake of
In the textbook's example of a regulatory system for room temperature, the temperature information that resulting in the shutoff of the correctional mechanism is called
Dr. Parks suspect that his client, Nate, was abused as a child. Nate has not yet confirmed this during therapy sessions. However, Nate's behavior and thinking resemble many patients whom Dr. Parks has treated for child abuse. Dr. Parks' suspicions about Nate's abuse are based on a(n) ___________ judgement.
The theory that the experience of emotion is preceded by physiological arousal is called the ____________ theory of emotion.
____________ is to open spaces as ______________ is to closed spaces.
If a therapist charges an exorbitant amount of money for her services,
you should shop around.
Last night Diego dreamed that he was being attacked by a mugger. In the dream, Diego attempted to defend himself with a pistol, but he could not pull the trigger. Diego's therapist tells him that the dream represents his failure in pressure situations. The therapist's interpretation reveals the ____________ content of the dream.
The general term used to describe therapies based on operant conditioning is
According to Bleuler, _____________ schizophrenia is a for of schizophrenia that has an early onset and an extended duration.
Students often start looking at the clock on the wall of the classroom just before the bell sounds to end the class. In this case, glancing at the clock is reinforced on a(n) _____________ schedule of reinforcement.
Recent research in both humans and animals has shown that ___________, which is secreted by ____________, acts in the body to prevent excessive weight gain.
leptin; fat cells
According to evolutionary psychology, _____________ in female primates is associated with the increased tendency of males to remain with the female and their decreased tendency to seek other partners relative to other mammals.
sexual receptivity throughout the whole reproductive cycle
The basic assumption of family therapy is that problems arise
out of negative patterns of family interactions.
The three stages of the general adaptation syndrome are
alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
The therapy procedure that begins with the client making a list of stimuli that are ranked in order of their ability to produce anxiety is called
In contrast to Ellis's view, Beck's view of psychological problems focuses more on
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
People with mania sometimes experience delusions.
__________ refers to the motivational effects of extinction.
Tim is a wide receiver on his college football team. Lately, Tim has dropped a lot of easy passes. He is beginning to get down on himself and is losing his confidence to play the game. Tim's coach pulls him aside one day and tells him to stop being so negative. He tells Tim, "Instead of thinking that you are going to drop the ball, tell yourself that you are going to catch it and run with it all the way to the end zone." The coach's advice is similar to a method of stress reduction called
Anna-Karina hears voices in her head that tell her what to do and what to say. She is experiencing
Among possible neurological causes of schizophrenia mentioned in the textbook, are all of the following EXCEPT
high fever during the second year of life.
If motivation has switched from intrinsic to extrinsic rewards, there will be no visible difference in the level of behavior as long as
the extrinsic rewards continue to be available.
Erin is a neuropsychologist who specializes in researching mental disorders. She views most of disorders as being due to the interaction of stress with a predisposition that reflects the combination of genes and early experience. Erin subscribes to the __________ model of mental disorders.
Obsessions are to _________ as compulsions are to __________.
Low levels of ___________ are to decreased activity of serotonin secreting neurons as low levels of __________ are to decreased activity of norepinephrine secreting neurons.
Lelia is a cigarette smoker who desires to quit smoking. She has tried several times to quit on her own, but so far has failed. She decides to consult a therapist. Her therapist suggests that she imagine herself dying of lung cancer and the anguish her dying would cause her loved ones. Lelia's therapist is using a method of therapy called
According is Lazarus, one's perception of a stressor is called
The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are identified by their
The life time prevalence rate of substance-related disorders is about ___________ percent and about __________ percent for alcoholism.
The biochemical basis of anti-psychotic medication for schizophrenia, at least as far as the positive symptoms of the disorder are concerned, involves the
blocking of dopamine receptors.
The organization effects of sex hormones
affect prenatal development.
Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR is devoted exclusively to _________ disorders.
Stimulation of the amygdala in non-human animals produces
Systematic desensitization is an effective therapy for
The surgical procedure that is used to treat symptoms of severe obsessive-compulsive disorder is called a(n)
Paulie's mother died a week ago, and at first he was so dazed and distressed that he couldn't think. He has now recovered enough to organize the funeral, call up friends and family, and look into legal aspects of her death. Paulie is most probably in the ___________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
Freud was tutored on the uses of hypnosis to treat mental illness by ___________, a French neurologist.
Mental health professional holding the psychodynamic perspective view mental disorders to be the result of
An appeasement gesture is a ritualized behavior that communicates
The indigenous healing therapies of any given culture are always centered on
a particular cultural belief system.
The reaction of the immune system that involves antibodies is called a(n) ____________ reaction.
Autism is estimated to occur in 1 out of every ____________ children, and it is ____________ likely to develop in boys than in girls.
166; 4 times more
What is the form of community treatment called in which a multidisciplinary team provides broad support for those who are severely mentally ill?
Assertive community treatment
Rogers' idea that therapy should be a haven from conditions of worth and from from underscores his belief that ___________ is one the the keys to building personal growth.
unconditional positive regard
Shawn is 14 years old. He has been caught stealing seven items in the past year. He is impulsive and often finds himself in fist fights. He seems to not respect the rights of other and shows no remorse when he gets caught breaking the law. Shawn seems likely to have __________ personality disorder.
One area of the brain that acts like a satiety center is called the
The DSM-IV-TR as well as previous versions, is used in the United States and in varying degrees around the world, by
all of the above.
The psychopharmacological revolution is related to the discovery of the __________ class of drugs to treat schizophrenia.
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