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Neuro unit 4
Terms in this set (55)
the postsynaptic receptor that helps to identify when "neurons that fire together"
remains bound to glutamate for a relatively long time and only opens when the postsynaptic membrane is depolarized (by the removal of a Mg2+ ion from the pore)
concentration determines whether a synapse will grow stronger or weaker
phosphorylation and insersion of AMPA receptors
regulate the strength of a postsynaptic response to presynaptic release of glutamate
synaptic tag and capture
hypothesized process by which a synapse that was temporarily potentiated becomes permanently potentiated following a strong input on a separate input path
how is working memory assessed
memory that is assessed in experiments using the standard radial arm maze
color of the object a monkey should select in a delayed nonmatch to sample task when presented with red and blue objects after having been previously shown a blue object
type of memory is assessed by experiments utilizing the Morris water maze
bilateral temporal lobectomy
experimental surgery for intractable epilepsy demonstrated that the hippocampus, amygdala, and surrounding cortical areas are important for the formation of episodic memories but not procedural memories
the conclusion of the optogenetic engram study performed by the Tonegawa lab
the basis of memory retrieval
long term memory
type of memory maintains information for months or years without rehearsal
type of amnesia that results in a loss of access to memories from prior to a brain trauma
this occurs when presynaptic cell fires shortly after a postsynaptic cell according to spike timing dependent plasticity
type of memory that helps to remember the details (including what, when, and where) of a memory linked to emotion
precursor to all cells in the brain
the cortex that provides the main input to the hippocampus
transient layer of cells is below the cortical plate during development
region where stem cells are located in the brain
strengthening occurs when
when a presynaptic axon is active at the same time that postsynaptic neuron is strongly activated by other inputs
time window in which changes can be readily made to the anatomical structure of a brain
activity dependent synaptic rearrangement
this is driven by sensory experiences beginning shortly after birth
ability to change the mapping between plasticity and activity, allowing a cell to adapt to changes in the baseline statistics of the world
hippocampal place cell
cells fire only when an animal is in a specific location
hypothesized mechanism of how information is held in working memory
type of degradation occurs to neural representation when a part of a neural ensemble is lost
name Hebb gave to the set of neurons that are simultaneously activated by a stimulus that are interconnected
active persistent activity
how memories are stored in the brain
type of memory accessed for conscious recollection
specific type of memory used to remember facts
comprised of three parts, the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive
this layer of newly developed cortex will not survive development
presynaptic cells compete for in order to avoid being off-ed by programmed cell death
cell death, process that balances the number of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons
type of gradient serves to provide orientation to the differentiation of neuroblasts into polarized neurons
central driving force in prenatal patterning of the brain
lobe of the brain that is associated with working memory
lesions to hippocampus
will increase the path length taken by a rat trying to escape from the morris water maze
portion of the brain is important for forming semantic memories
underlie long-term memory formation
activation dynamics of the brain
key factor in determining the pattern of wiring in the brain
input specificity of neural plasticity
allows individual neurons to respond differently to different input pathways
who is H.M?
Henry Molaison, suffered brain injury from bicycle accident, severe epileptic seizures until the removal of hippocampus on both sides of the brain
the theory which states that synapses that are active when the postsynaptic cell is only weakly depolarized by other inputs will undergo LTD instead of LTP
different cells are produced
same cell is produced
where are neural stem cells located?
fluid filled ventricles
long term potentiation: persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity
A distinctive structure at the growing end of most axons
what increases neurogenesis in adult animals?
learning, hippocampus-dependent learning (long-term learning), virtually all antidepressant therapies, exercise
what is the benefit of a distributed representation?
easy to make associations with other representations or responses
What is an experience-dependent process?
-Private events occurring in response to stimulatio
what are the two main categories of long term memory?
what is a distributed representation?
the meaning is not locally represented by a single unit that is analogous to a "grandmother cell"
what happens following monocular deprivation?
Generally, one of an animal's eyes is sutured shut during a period of high cortical plasticity. This manipulation serves as an animal model for amblyopia, a permanent deficit in visual sensation not due to abnormalities in the eye.
how does monocular deprivation and the age of the animal relate?
older the animal longer it takes to change?
what changes at the neural level when there is stimuli?
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