AP Bio - 1st Sem Final

Terms in this set (62)

Carbohydrates- different types
- monosaccharides (glucose and company)
- disaccharides (maltose and sucrose, etc.)
- polysaccharide (starch and multiple monosaccharides bonded together)
These carbohydrates as used to make ATP via cellular respiration. It's basically a place for energy storage. It can also be used in cells as cell walls (chitin and cellulose are both carbohydrates). Their structure is appropriate, because it's purpose is an energy bank and thus getting the energy when it is needed would be helpful. All you have to do to get energy from polysaccharides is just add H2O and it'll become a simpler monosaccharide, easily able to be formed into ATP.

Lipids- Includes triglycerides, steroids, phospholipids, and fats.
Fats: fatty acids and glycerol, has a carboxyl group at the end. Fats help to protect organs, provide insulation, and to store energy.
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats: Saturated has kinks, Unsaturated has no kinks.

Phospholipids: Has a hydrophobic and hydrophilic part. Vital to the fluid mosaic membrane model. It's structure keeps it so there are hydrophilic parts facing the water while the hydrophobic parts do not in the cell membrane.
Steroids: Hormones and stuff are included in this.
Triglycerols: make up body fat, good for storage of energy.

Proteins- Many different types and functions of proteins, including but not limited to:
- Structural proteins
- Storage proteins
- Transport proteins
- Enzymes
Primary structure is composed of amino acids; secondary structure are alpha helixes and beta sheets; Tertiary structure are folds of a-helixes and b-sheets, R group interactions make them fold; Quaternary structure have complex folds and twists, interaction between proteins with subunits.

Nucleic acids- Usually found in DNA/RNA, have genetic info stored in chains of nucleotides. Nucleotides: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
Organelles such as the cell wall and membrane work with the rest of the cell by not letting in/out certain particles, and providing structural integrity. The nucleus works with the nucleolus by creating to make ribosomes, which are then transported to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Proteins are then made. Proteins travel through channels in the endoplasmic reticulum and go to the golgi body. The golgi body packs and makes them ready to be transported to the border of the cell.

The nucleus is the organelle that functions as the command center. The nucleus contains the genetic code material, in the form of DNA, that coordinates the growth and function of the rest of the cell.An organelle that works very closely with the nucleus is the ribosome. The ribosome---through the molecule messenger RNA---obtains the codes from the DNA in the nucleus for building cellular proteins.A fairly large and extensive organelle is the endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum is a complex series of folded membranes. It is connected to the membrane that surrounds the nucleus and extends out into the cell's cytoplasm. In doing so, it establishes a chemical communication pathway between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. One of its critical functions is to transport proteins within the cell. An organelle that is somewhat similar to the endoplasmic reticulum is the Golgi apparatus. It functions in a similar way except that it specializes in preparing materials, like proteins, for transport through the cell membrane to the exterior of the cell.
The fluidity of membranes
Membranes are held together by hydrophobic interactions
Proteins and lipids can move around laterally on one layer but rarely flip to the other side
Some move along the cytoskeleton fibers
Membrane remains fluid as temperature decreases until the phospholipids settle into a closely packed arrangement
Membrane remains fluid longer if there are more phospholipids with unsaturated hydrocarbon tails
Separated more because of the kinks in the tails
At higher temperatures, it makes the membrane less fluid
Restrains phospholipid movement
Lowers the temperature required for membranes to solidify because they are packed less tightly
Temperature buffer

Major functions of proteins in the plasma membrane

Hydrophilic channel through the protein
Shuttle a substance from one side to the other by changing shape
Enzymatic Activity
May have an active site exposed to substances in the adjacent solution
Signal Transduction
May have a binding site with a specific shape that fits the shape of a chemical messenger, such as a hormone
May cause a shape change in the protein that relays the message to the inside of the cell
Cell-Cell Recognition
Some glycoproteins are identification tags that are recognized by membrane proteins of other cells
Intercellular Joining
Membrane proteins of adjacent cells may hook together in junctions
Attachment to the Cytoskeleton and Extracellular Matrix
Microfilaments may be bound to membrane proteins, which stabilizes the location of certain membrane proteins and maintain cell shape