Terms in this set (172)
___ is a neurotransmitter with roles in pleasure and pain modulation
Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. Behavior refers to___.
observable actions of humans and nonhuman animals.
Functionalist psychologists focus on the function of behavior and ______.
the operation of the whole mind rather than the individual parts.
A key difference between the dynamic unconscious and the cognitive unconscious is that____.
the cognitive unconscious does not emphasize animal urges and repressed thoughts
Mohammed is sleeping. His eyelids are quivering because his eyes are darting around. Mohammed is probably experiencing ____ sleep.
An electrical signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron's axon to a synapse is called a(n) _____ potential.
The older position of nativism is reflected in psychological views that emphasize the effect of ____ one behavior.
Benzodiazepines are a type of ____.
Psychologists work in a wide variety of settings, but the largest percentage work in_______.
Devine et al. are interested in assessing whether active versus passive play causes a preference for sweet or salty foods in toddlers. They assign groups of children to either an active play, passive play, or no play group and record their food choices when presented with a variety of sweet and salty foods. In this study, ________ is the independent variable.
type of play
A _______ scan involves taking a number of x-rays of a particular section of a person's body or brain.
computerized tomography (CT) scan
What is the correct order of the four steps in the scientific method?
Develop an explanation, conduct research, interpret data, and draw conclusions.
Which of the following research designs will allow cause-and-effect conclusions?
Researchers are conducting a study where they have concerns that the participant's beliefs and the experimenter's beliefs may skew the results. Therefore, they chose to conduct a ________ study.
Carrie is working with a patient to uncover the patient's early experiences as well as trying to bring unconscious anxieties and conflicts into awareness. Carrie is using which approach to work with her patient?
What does the introduction of an extreme score into a distribution do to the mean of that distribution?
It changes it a lot.
A(n) _________ variable is a variable that affects both variables a correlation and may falsely give the impression of a cause-and-effect relationship.
The sleep disorder characterized by walking while asleep is called __________.
Parsons et al. are doing a study comparing differences in brain activity levels between patients with schizophrenia and controls with no psychological disorders. Their hypothesis requires a high level of detail and good detection of differences over time. Which of the following is the best brain imaging technique to use?
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
The ____ reviews research conducted using animal subjects.
I'm studying the relationship between playing violent games and aggressive behavior. In my study I have a group that plays a violent game and then is given the chance to behave aggressively, and a group that plays a non-violent game and is then given the chance to behave aggressively. Which groups is the control group?
The non-violent game group
The central nervous system consists of the brain and the ______.
Ali is aware of his feelings, emotions, and thoughts. He is also aware of his surroundings, the warmth of the sun, and the sound of nearby traffic. Ali is in a state of ______.
The capacity to include some objects in consciousness and not others is called the _______ of consciousness.
As hours of studying increase, academic performance also increases. This exemplifies a _______.
How many of the five stages of sleep are considered NREM sleep?
Which of the following is not a part of the fight or flight response?
The possible range for a correlation is between ______.
-1 and +1
The empirical method of study is based on ______.
The belief that psychological phenomena are likely to vary considerably across cultures and should be viewed only in the context of specific cultures is in accordance with _____.
Which statement about neurons is NOT true?
The intensity of the stimulus makes the neuron "fire" more intensely.
The _______ receive information; the ______ transmit information.
Physical dependence on a drug is indicated by the user experiencing ______ as a result of discontinuing use of the drug.
changes in normal bodily function
Leslie thinks that we learn to act in a certain ways because of the consequences of out behavior. Her belief is probably influenced by the findings of ______.
Which of the following statements about sleep deprivation is false?
Sleep deprivation often results in ADHD.
______ are cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks.
The hidden meaning of a dream is called the ______ content.
Which of the following is a criticism of structuralism?
The process was highly subjective.
Cognitive psychology focuses on studying _____.
thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions
Stan and Jenny are in a psychology course that requires them to repeat an experiment that researchers have conducted in the past, in order to determine whether they produce the same results. This is called ______.
A form of experience that departs significantly from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind is called _________.
an altered state of consciousness
A sharpshooter in a war combat zone is monitoring a busy street for his enemy target. He will have only one chance to take out his target; thus he is scanning the street with extreme vigilance. The activity of which neurotransmitter is underlying his alertness?
Today, over 70 percent of individuals receiving their Ph.D.'s in psychology are _______.
Wendy's mother has blue eyes and her father has brown eyes. The allele for brown eye color is dominant (B) to the allele for blue eye color (b), but Wendy has blue eyes. Therefore, Wendy's _______ must be ______ and her father's must be Bb.
Naghemeh wants to focus on the emotional, social, vocational, and health-related outcomes of individuals who are considered psychologically healthy. Which area of psychology should she work in?
Which of the following is not a forebrain structure?
Which of the following would be the best example of a valid naturalistic observation study in driving behavior?
Watching footage obtained from cameras set up unobtrusively on various streets.
Which of the following is NOT part of obtaining informed consent?
Explaining the hypothesis it the participant.
Methamphetamine is a type of ______.
Watson criticized the introspective methods of structuralists and functionalists primarily because ___.
the mental processes they measured cannot produce replicable and objective measures required by science
_______ refers to the ability to consistently produce a given result.
A smaller standard deviation indicates that the scores in a distribution __________.
differ less from each other
The theory of __________ states that organisms that are better suited for their environment will survive and reproduce, while those that are poorly suited for their environment will die off.
evolution by natural selection
Which of the following senses is associated with the temporal lobe?
Why is psychology considered a social science?
Behavior is biological, but our behavior is influenced by our interactions with others.
Tayla smokes marijuana. At first, just a few inhalations were enough to cloud her mind. Over time, she needs to smoke more and more to achieve the same affect. This is an example of __________.
The process by which a neurotransmitter is reabsorbed by the terminal button of the presynaptic is termed ___.
People who had to choose which of these hypothetical candidates would make the best roommate made the best decision when ________.
they were given time to unconsciously deliberate on the potential roommates while they were actively engaged in an unrelated problem-solving task.
_______ is a perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans.
What term describes the continuation of a visual sensation after removal of the stimulus?
One problem with the ratio IQ that was fixed by the deviation IQ was ________.
people could be getting smarter just by getting older
Which term best describes rewarding successive approximations of a target behavior?
When we estimate the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory, we presume such events are common. This is called a(n) _______.
A(an) ________ is a mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts.
What is the X-shaped structure that sits just below the the brain's ventral surface and represents the merging of the optic nerves from the two eyes?
_____ reinforcers have innate reinforcing qualities.
What are the two components of declarative memory?
semantic and episodic
Children who live in poverty preform worse on intelligence tests because they _______.
experience more pervasive daily stress, which affects how the brain functions and develops, thus causing a dip in IQ scores
Which process involves observing a model being punished and then becoming less likely to imitate the model's behavior?
Which term describes a communication system that uses systematic rules to organize words to transmit information from one individual to another?
Harold catches fish throughout the day at unpredictable intervals. Which reinforcement schedule is this?
Petra walks into a brightly lit Psychology lab to participate in an experiment involving the ability to perceive colors of the rainbow. Which photoreceptors will be most useful during this experiment?
Habituation involves _______.
Which of the following is an example of observational learning?
teaching yourself yoga by watching a yoga group in the park.
A __________ is the smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning.
A(an) ______ involves approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past, but it is clearly no longer working.
Remembering ______ is a good example of episodic memory
your first day of school
When an organism receives a reinforcer each time it displays a behavior, it is called ____ reinforcement.
Taste aversion can best be explained by _______.
Which field of psychology includes the following concepts: figure-ground relationship, law of continuity, and principle of closure?
Which of the following exemplifies gustation?
tasting freshly caught salmon
From a psychological perspective, the term cognition means________.
What is the Flynn effect?
The observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation.
Participants who studied information while intoxicated were best able to recall the information when they ______.
retrieved it while intoxicated
What type of memories do we consciously try to remember and recall?
Learning that occurs but is not observable in behavior until there is a reason to demonstrate it is called ______ learning.
The heritability coefficient of intelligence is roughly _____.
A(an) _________ is the best example, or representation, of a concept.
Suppose you are watching a movie on a large screen. For a fraction of a second, the words "Drink Cola" flash on the screen. You do not perceive the words "Drink Cola" because it is beyond your absolute threshold. In this example, the message "Drink Cola" is an example of ______.
a subliminal message
When you take a multiple-choice test, you are relying on ________, a means of retrieving information out of your long-term memory storage system that helps you choose the correct answer.
Which statement about the relationship between the operant response and the discriminative stimulus is true?
The operant response is only given in the presence of the discriminative stimulus.
The conjunction fallacy describes how people are more likely to think _______ than that ___.
two events occur together; either individual event occurs separately
Which type of processing involves the interpretation of sensations and is influenced by available knowledge, experiences, and thoughts?
The encoding of words and their meanings is known as _______ encoding.
_____ encoding is the encoding of sounds.
Elaborative rehearsal involves _________.
thinking about the meaning of the new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory
_____ -frequency sound waves are perceived as high-pitched sounds, while _______ -frequency sound waves are perceived as low-pitched sounds.
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? "The frequency theory of pitch perception asserts that frequency is coded by the activity level of a sensory neuron."
The word "frequency" should be changed to the word "temporal."
Which of the following statements about eyewitness testimony is correct?
Eyewitness testimony is vulnerable to the power of suggestion.
Dozens of people witness a purse snatching. One of the eyewitnesses loudly yells "the man with the blue shirt did it." Later, when questioned by the police, several other eyewitnesses remember the purse snatcher wearing a blue shirt, even though the purse snatcher was a woman in a flowered dress. This is an example of _______: the effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories.
According to _________-based theories of object recognition, your brain deconstructs retinal images into _______ to make identifications.
Longer light waves will have _____ frequencies, and shorter light waves will have ________ frequencies.
In operant conditioning, ______ is when something is removed to increase the likelihood of a behavior.
Your friend Eric comes over to your house for dinner. He has just shaved off his beard and you do not notice. This would be an example of ______.
What is described by the concept of perception?
how sensory information is interpreted and consciously experienced
Which of the following is the decrease in the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented with the conditioned stimulus?
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? "Fluid intelligence is characterized as acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it."
The word "Fluid" should be changed to the word "Crystallized"
In relation to amnesia, backward moving is to _____ as forward moving is to _______.
retrograde amnesia; anterograde amnesia
What do psychologists call a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that results from experience?
Behavior that is conditioned with _____ reinforcement is _____ resistant to extinction.
What is procedural memory?
type of implicit memory that stores information about how to do things
The ability to understand, express, and regulate emotions is called ______.
For many in the baby-boom generation, the Kennedy assassination represents a ______, an exceptionally clear recollection of an important event.
The act of getting information out of memory storage and back into conscious awareness is known as ______.
Inattentional______ refers to the failure to notice something that is completely visible due to a lack of attention.
Forgetting that occurs with the passage of time is known as ______.
Research on racial differences in intelligence indicates that ________.
on average, Black Americans preform less well than White Americans in intelligence tests
In operant conditioning, what describes adding something to decrease the likelihood of behavior?
Elroy not to cheat on the exam because he would fail the class if he was caught. What stage of moral development does this exemplify?
Dale thinks that women should't work outside the home and vows never to hire a woman at his bank. Dale's attitudes and planned course of action are _____.
The traits openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism are key components of the ______.
Five Factor Model
The facial _______ hypothesis states that facial expressions are capable of influencing our emotions.
What is groupthink?
Modification of the opinions of members of a group to align with what they believe is the group consensus
What does the normative approach ask regarding the lifespan?
What is normal development?
The two dimensions of emotions are _______.
valence and arousal
What is the main point of the textbook discussion of Milgram's obedience study?
Individuals will obey authority to the point of potentially causing serious harm to another person.
18-month-old Gordon learned the schema for apples. When Gordon sees tomatoes at the grocery store, he says, "Look mommy, apples!" His mother tells him the the food he sees at the store is a tomato, not an apple. He now has separate schemata for tomatoes and apples. This exemplifies ______.
What does nurture refer to in the nature vs. nurture debate?
environment and culture
______ development involves growth and changes in the body and brain, the senses, motor skills, and heath and wellness.
What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Socioemotional discrimination theory suggests that our social support and friendships dwindle in the number as we get older, but they remain as close, if not more close, than in our earlier years.
The word "discrimination"should be changed to the word "selectivity."
Which of the following is an example of the overjustification effect?
Children may enjoy playing with toys until they are told they will get paid to play with toys. They may still play with toys to get paid, but they view it differently because they are getting paid.
If you believe you will win the hot dog eating competition, then you have a sense of ______, and you are more likely to enter the hot dog eating competition.
_____ motivation arises from external factors or rewards.
Jessica believes that she succeeds in high school because she works hard, earned a place on the basketball team because she practices constantly, and cooks well because she takes cooking classes. Julian Rotter would say Jessica has ______.
an internal locus of control
________ is wants or needs that direct behavior toward some goal.
_______ are concepts (mental models) that are used to help us categorize and interpret information.
____ is an eating disorder characterized by an individual maintaining body weight that is well below average through starvation and/or excessive exercise.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective test __________.
in which people are presented with ambiguous images.
Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense mechanism known as _____.
Which of the following geographic regions is not correctly matched with its personality cluster?
West- unfriendly, paranoid
Which statement about Sternberg's triangular theory of love is most accurate?
There are three components of love: intimacy, passion, and commitment.
What is the main point of the Stanford prison experiment?
social roles are powerful determinants of human behavior.
_____ is a strategy to influence one's emotional experience.
Don knows that drinking too much liquor is a costly habit that is bad for his health, but he continues to drink large amounts of liquor. He also thinks he is a smart person that makes good choices. Don feels some psychological discomfort from this contradiction, which is also called ________.
Western culture may be involved in the development of eating disorders because Western culture _________.
An asymmetrical smile is a sign ________.
the smile isn't genuine
A(an) ______ complex refers to the feeling that one lacks worth and doesn't measure up to the standards of others or of society.
Kugler-Ross proposed that the last stage of the dying process involves _______.
A highly anxious and insecure personality illustrates the Big Five trait dimension of ________.
The culture display rule is one of the culturally specific standards the govern the types and frequencies of _______ that are acceptable.
Carissa's parents let her stay up as late as she wants. She is allowed to pick out her own clothes and decide when and what she wants to eat. Her parents act more like her friends than authority figures. What kind of parenting style is this?
According to Freud, ______ is the most important activity during the anal stage.
Which of the following best exemplifies prosocial behavior?
Tyler visits his aunt once a week to bring her groceries.
The structure of personality that evaluates the morality of behavior is called the ________.
A _________ is a behavior pattern expected of a person of a certain gender.
Umberto is one year old, and his mother is sensitive and responsive to his needs. He is distressed when his mother leaves him, and he is happy to see her when she returns. What kind of attachment is this?
The term ____ rule refers to the tendency of infants to develop motor control from the center of their bodies outwards.
Kara gets an F on her social psychology exam. Then she goes home and gets into an argument with her roommate, Lee. Lee assumes Kara is yelling at him because she likes to bully him, not because she had a bad day. Lee is making a ________.
fundamental attribution error
According to Jean Piaget, in what stage do children begin to use language?
The drawback of the Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion is ______.
not all emotions produce the same pattern of physiological activity
Which type of persuasion involves encouraging a person to agree to a small favor or to buy a small item, only to later request a larger favor or purchase of a larger item?
Among ______, it is those who reach puberty _____ than their peers who are most likely to experience negative consequences ranging from distress to delinquency.
How can we use conversion therapy to change someone's sexual orientation?
We cannot change someone's sexual orientation because it is a relatively stable characteristic of a person that cannot be changed.
The concept of conservation refers to ______.
knowing that even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal size as long as nothing has been removed or added.
A drawback of self-report questionnaires is that _____.
they rely on the test taker to tell the truth
______ holds that our behavior is determined by internal factors.
The ______ refers to the common psychological tendencies that have been passed down from one generation to the next.
One criticism of the psychodynamic approach is that _____.
All of these are criticisms of the psychodynamic approach
Which of the following is something an advocate for arousal theory might observe?
When we are bored we look for excitement; when we are overexcited we wish for more peace.
Theorists who view development as ____ believe that development takes place in unique stages.
A(n) ____ is the evaluation of or feelings toward a person, idea, or object that are typically positive or negative.
Jasmine belongs to the chess club on her campus. She p
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