EBIO 1210 - Gene Expression
Terms in this set (42)
What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?
Transcription (DNA is transcribed to give an RNA copy.)
DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?
Organelles (Synthesis of organelles is not directly coded in the DNA.)
Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?
A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase (This is the site where the RNA polymerase must bind to initiate transcription.)
Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene?
The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene. (The promoter is the regulatory region of a protein-coding gene at which RNA polymerase must bind to initiate transcription—it is not transcribed into the RNA.)
What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription?
Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides (Transcription involves the formation of an RNA strand that is complementary to the DNA template strand.)
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand?
Complementary (Because the template strand determines the nucleotides to be added to the RNA strand, using the same complementarity rules of the DNA, they will be complementary to each other.)
What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene?
It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription. (The enzyme is free to transcribe other genes in the cell.)
In the diagram below, the gray unit represents _____.
RNA polymerase (RNA polymerase untwists a portion of the DNA double helix.)
In the diagram below, the green unit represents _____.
the promoter (The promoter is the region of DNA at which the process of transcription begins.)
In the diagram below, the two blue strands represent _____.
DNA (DNA is a double helix)
Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?
(In RNA, uracil takes the place of thymine.)
The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.
5' —> 3' (Nucleotides are added to the 3' end of RNA.)
Suppose that a portion of double-stranded DNA in the middle of a large gene is being transcribed by an RNA polymerase. As the polymerase moves through the sequence of six bases shown in the diagram below, what is the corresponding sequence of bases in the RNA that is produced?https://session.masteringbiology.com/problemAsset/1093391/38/1093391_001.jpg
For any given gene, what ultimately determines which DNA strand serves as the template strand?
the base sequence of the gene's promoter
Which three statements correctly describe the processing that takes place before a mature mRNA exits the nucleus?
-Noncoding sequences called introns are spliced out by molecular complexes called spliceosomes.
-A cap consisting of a modified guanine nucleotide is added to the 5' end of the pre-mRNA.
-A poly-A tail (50-250 adenine nucleotides) is added to the 3' end of the pre-mRNA.
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.
modified guanine nucleotide (The 5' cap consists of a modified guanine nucleotide.)
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.
a long string of adenine nucleotides (A poly-A tail is added to the 3' end of the RNA.)
Spliceosomes are composed of _____.
snRNPs and other proteins (These are the component of spliceosomes.)
The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____.
exons (Exons are expressed regions.)
Translation occurs in the _____.
cytoplasm (Ribosomes, the sites of translation, are found in the cytoplasm.)
Use the table to sort the following ten codons into one of the three bins, according to whether they code for a start codon, an in-sequence amino acid, or a stop codon
Stop: UAA, UGA, UAG
Amino Acid: AAA, ACU, UGC, GCA, CAC, AUC
During translation, nucleotide base triplets (codons) in mRNA are read in sequence in the 5' → 3' direction along the mRNA. Amino acids are specified by the string of codons. What amino acid sequence does the following mRNA nucleotide sequence specify?
Met-Ala-Arg-Lys (An amino acid sequence is determined by strings of three-letter codons on the mRNA, each of which codes for a specific amino acid or a stop signal. The mRNA is translated in a 5' → 3' direction.)
What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA
Transcription (Transcription is the process by which a DNA template is used for the manufacture of several different types of RNA.)
What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein?
Translation (Translation is the process by which information encoded in RNA is used to manufacture a polypeptide.)
What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA?
RNA processing (RNA processing edits the RNA transcript that has been assembled along a DNA template.)
Polypeptides are assembled from _____.
amino acids (Proteins are composed of amino acid monomers.)
RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____.
mRNA (The editing of the RNA transcript produces mRNA.)
Which of these is a tRNA? https://session.masteringbiology.com/problemAsset/1000326079/3/1716q.jpg
The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____.
CUG (In RNA uracil replaces thymine.)
What is the name of the process shown in the diagram?
initiation (of translation)
If a segment of DNA were replicated without any errors, the replicated strand would have the following sequence of nucleotides:
5' - ACTACGTGA - 3'
Sort the following replicated DNA sequences by the type of point mutation each contains (frameshift, base substitution, or neither), as compared to the correct sequence shown above.
Frameshift Mutation: 5'-ACTTACGTGA-3', 5'-ACTCGA-3'
Base Substitution Mutation: 5'-ACTACGTGT-3', 5'-ACTAAGTGA-3'
Generally speaking, which of the following mutations would most severely affect the protein coded for by a gene?
a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene (A frameshift mutation at the beginning of a gene would affect every codon after the point where the mutation occurred.)
In molecular terms, a gene is best defined as
a sequence of DNA that codes for a protein
The "central dogma" of biology explains how
information stored in DNA comes to life in two fundamental steps.
Which of the following are involved in the initiation of transcription in eukaryotes?
Promoter, transcription factors, RNA polymerase
Which of the following are involved in the initiation of translation?
Start codon, ribosome, mRNA, tRNA
Elongation during transcription directly involves
- RNA polymerase.
- complementary base pairing.
-the synthesis of a nucleic acid.
-the formation of bonds in a sugar-phosphate backbone.
Which of the following functions do RNA molecules perform during transcription?
holding a "message" from the DNA
Which of the following functions do RNA molecules perform during translation?
-catalyzing the formation of bonds between amino acids
-carrying amino acids
-providing a site for building a protein
-holding a "message" from the DNA
DNA replication, transcription, and translation all directly require
hydrogen bonding between complementary nucleotide bases.
Which of the following RNA molecules catalyzes reactions (i.e., catalyzes the formation of chemical bonds) during translation?
Which of the following RNA molecules carries amino acids corresponding to specific codons?
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