History of Our World Chapter 7
The Glory of Ancient Greece
Terms in this set (35)
a city-state in ancient Greece; the capital of modern-day Greece
a public market and meeting place in an ancient Greek city; the Agora, spelled with a capital "a" refers to the agora of Athens
a seller of goods
condition of being owned by, and forced to work for, someone else
a city-state in ancient Greece
in ancient Sparta, the term for slaves who were owned by the state
a war fought between Athens and Sparta in ancient Greece; almost every other Greek city-state was involved in the war
a wide-spread disease
an action taken to isolate the enemy and cut off its supplies
to murder for political reasons
Alexander the Great
king of Macedonia; conquered Persia and Egypt and invaded India
describing Greek history or culture after the death of Alexander the Great, including thethree main kingdoms formed by the breakup of Alexander's empire
What activities took place in the Agora of Athens?
The Agora was the center of Athens' public life. The men talked of politics, philosophy, or events in their community. Farmers and artisan sold their wares.
What does the Agora tell us about the culture of Athens?
The Agora was not only a public market but also a meeting place where ideas about politics, philosophy or events in the community were openly discussed.
Describe the home life of the Athenians.
Home life in Athens was simple. Greek houses consisted of rooms set around an open courtyard that was hidden from the street. Greeks ate simple food and little meat.
What were the responsibilities of men compared to those of women in ancient Athens?
Women were kept at home because men felt they needed to be protected. Women had almost none fo the freedom their husbands, sons and fathers had, but running the home and family was the job of the women.
Considering the responsibilites of men and women in Athens, what conclusions can you make about society in ancient Athens?
It was a patriarchal (man lead) society, and women were not valued for more than their leadership at home. Pericles once said: The greatest glory belong to the woman who is least talked about by men, either they praise her or find fault with her.
Describe the varous roles of slaves in Athens and of those in the rest of Greece.
Slaves in Athens were very important (almost 1/3 of the Athenian population was slaves) because it was the labor of the slaves that gave Athenian men the leisure time to go to the Agora, participate in government, and develop a love of the arts. Slaves did all kinds of work but they had no political rights or personal feedom and they received no formal education.
Free pople rarely questioned slavery in ancient Greece. Why do you think this was so?
Without the labor of the slaves, Greek citizens would not have had the leisure to participate in government and the arts. Most Greek households could not have operated without slaves.
Describe what life was like for boys living in Sparta.
At 7 boys left home to begin a 13 year soldier training. Boys were expected to bear pain, hardship, and punishment in silence. At 20 years old, a young man officially became a soldier and remained so until their 60th birthday.
What was the Spartan attitude toward wealth?
Spartans looked down on the desire for wealth and on those engaged in trade.
How did the Spartans' attitude toward wealth affect their trade and travel?
The Spartans did not mingle with other Greeks and were not allowed to travel. They looked down on those engaged in trade.
How did the Greeks overcome the Persian invasion?
Greek city states briefly united and drove away the Persians.
What was at stake for the people of Athens at the Battle of Marathon?
Marathon was only 25 miles north of Athens, so the freedom of the people of Athens was at stake at the Battle of Marathon.
How might the history of Greece have changed if the Persians had succeeded at Marathon?
If the Persians had succeeded at Marathon, it is possible that the Persians could have taken over Athens (the most powerful city-state) and eventually gained control of all of Greece expanding the Persian empire.
What happened to the Greeks' attitude about themselves after defeating the Persians?
The victory over the Persians increased the Greeks' sense of their own importance. They believed that the gods had favored them and had therefore influenced the outcome of the wars.
How did the Athenian empire develop after its victory over Persia?
Athens emerged from the war as the most powerful city-state in Greece. Its influence spread over much of eastern Greece and joined the Delian League. Athens came to dominate the league and used it to create its own empire.
Who was Alexander's tutor when he was young?
Alexander's tutor was the Greek philosopher Aristotle.
How did Alexander's upbringing affect his attitudes about Greek culture?
Alexander was taught Greek literature, philosophy and science by Aristotle. Aristotle passed on his strong feelings that the Greeks were a superior people and, therefore, deserve to rule.
Alexander the Great wanted the cultures of his defeated cities to survive and mix with Greek culture. What happened instead?
When Alexander took control of lands, he tried not to destroy the cultures of the defeated pople. Instead, he oped that the local cultures would mix with Greek culture in his new cities. The cities of the Hellenistic world were modeled after Greek cities. Greek kings ruled, and Greeks held the most important jobs. Unfortunately, this mixing did not happen in the three Hellenistic kingdoms.
What features of Greek culture were carried over to the Hellenistic kingdoms?
The cities of the Hellenistic world were modeled after Greek cities. Greek kings ruled, and Greeks held the most important jobs. The cities were designed with Greek temples and agoras. Citizens gathered at large theaters for performances of Greek tragedies. The greek lnguage was spoken in the cities for hundreds of years, even though people in the countryside continued to speak their local languages.
Name one way that the domination of greek culture in the hellenistic countries might have been an advantage. Name one way that it might have been a disadvantage.
Advantage - important Hellenistic cities were centers of learning; math and science grew
Disadvantage - native languages and cultures of Hellenistic cities were not encouraged and maintained
Describe the importance of the contributions made by Euclid.
Euclid develped the branch of mathematics called geometry.
Describe the importance of the contributions made by Eratosthenes.
Eratosthenes was a scientist that knew that the earth was round and calculated the distance around the earth.
Describe the importance of the contributions made by Archimedes.
Archimedes discovered that people can use pulley and levers to lift very heavy objects.