Bespoke Education SAT US History Subject Test - 1790-1898

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Tariff of Abominations
Name given to the 1828 tariff by Southerners because it seriously hurt the South's economy, while benefiting Northern and Western industrial interests. This led to the Nullification Crisis.
1894 Pullman Strike
A strike instigated by Eugene Debs' American Railway Union against the Pullman Company, which produced the sleeper cars for trains. After a wage cut and the company's failure to recognize Debs' American Railway Union, workers began a strike that ultimately ended in failure. President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction and eventually sent in the army to put down the strike, landing Debs in jail.
Alexander Hamilton
An aide to Washington during the American Revolution, he became a major spokesman for a strong central government, one of the writers of the Federalist papers, and appointed Secretary of the Treasury during Washington's administration. He was responsible for major economic policies that launched the American economy, including the Bank of the United States, the assumption of revolutionary debts by the federal government, and excise taxes.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Visited the United States in the 1830s to study the concept and practice of American democracy.
Alfred T. Mahan
Supported American imperialist policy in 19th century through a strong navy.
American Federation of Labor
focused on obtaining shorter hours, higher wages, and better working conditions for its members; focused on obtaining shorter hours, higher wages, and better working conditions for its members; opposed the unionization of African Americans; unionized only skilled workers; went on strike only if negotiations between labor and management failed.
American System
Henry Clay's program for internal improvements in the West; high protective tariffs; the Second Bank of the United States; federal land sales. Was a major plank of the Whig Party.
Anti-Imperialist League
Argued against American imperialism in the late 1890s. Its members included William James, Andrew Carnegie, and Mark Twain.
Bank Veto
Refers to Andrew Jackson's veto of the bill that would have renewed the charter for the Second Bank of the US.
Battle of New Orleans
Andrew Jackson's defeat of the British in the War of 1812 that contributed to his popularity.
Battle of the Alamo
In 1836, Texas fought for its independence from Mexico. Mexicans attacked the Alamo, a fortress in San Antonio, and killed the Americans, including the frontiersman, Davy Crockett. The cry "Remember the Alamo" inspired the Americans in their eventual defeat of the Mexicans.
Battle of Gettysburg
This was the largest battle of the Civil War and considered to be the turning point, as it marked the Union's first major victory in the East. It resulted in 51,000 deaths.
Black Codes
They were passed by Southern state legislatures to restrict the rights of former slaves.
Bleeding Kansas
A period of unrest in Kansas in the midst of a contentious vote over the issue of slavery in the Territory, which followed the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Included John Brown's murder of a group of pro-slavery settlers; the drafting of the Lecompton Constitution, which proposed establishing slavery in Kansas; an attack by a pro-slavery groups from Missouri on an antislavery group in Lawrence, Kansas; and interference in the Kansas election by "border ruffians" from Missouri.
Booker T. Washington
believed that social and political equality would come; gradually and should not be forced; African Americans should remain in the south, where the best opportunities existed for progress; African Americans should make themselves economically useful to the rebuilding of the south; higher education was not as valuable for the majority of African Americans as vocational training was.
Brigham Young
A major leader of the Mormons (the Church of the Latter Day Saints). Fled west to Utah when the sect was persecuted over its illegal practice of polygamy.
William Jennings Bryan
A Democratic candidate for president in 1896, 1900, and 1908 and a leader of the Populist Party, his "Cross of Gold" speech advocating Free Silver and an end to the Gold Standard earned him great popularity. He later served as Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson but resigned in opposition to entering World War I. He later served as the prosecutor in the Scopes Monkey Trial, strongly advocating creationism.
James Buchanan
The 15th President of the United States, moderate Democrat James Buchanan drew support from both North and South. However, was unable to stem the tide of sectional conflict that eventually erupted in the Civil War. His failure to act in the period between the secession of southern states following Lincoln's secession and Lincoln's eventual inauguration more than five months later has led many historians to consider him the worst President in US History.
Calhoun's Nullification Theory
States' rights were supreme; tariffs levied by Congress must benefit all states; equally; protective tariffs raised in 1816,1824, and 1828 damaged the Southern economy; states had the authority to decide the constitutionality of laws that affected their citizens.
Carpetbaggers
Southern white democrats gave the nickname to northerners who moved South during Reconstruction in search of political and economic opportunity.
Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson and published in 1881, this book attempted to raise public awareness of the harsh and dishonorable treatment of Native Americans by the United States.
Civil Service Commission
Prevent the practice of patronage in government jobs.
Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820)
Admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Creation of Mason-Dixon Line above which slavery would be illegal (with the exception of Missouri)
Compromise of 1850
a strengthened fugitive slave law; California's admission to the Union as a free state; New Mexico's admission to the Union as a slave state; the outlaw of the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
Compromise of 1877
Reflected growing northern disinterest in Reconstruction and in race relations in the South.
Congressional Reconstruction
Constitutional voting laws were changed to enfranchise former slaves as citizens.
Corrupt bargain
Although Andrew Jackson won the most popular and electoral votes in the 1824 election, he failed to win the necessary majority and the election thrown into the House of Representatives. There the Speaker of the House, Clay backed Adams, ensuring his victory and Adams made Clay, Secretary of State. Jackson and his supporters denounced the deal as a "corrupt bargain."
Cotton gin
Invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin separated the fibers of short-staple cotton from the seeds. The mechanization of this task made cotton plantations much more efficient and profitable, giving rise to a cotton-dominated economy in the South and expanding the demand for slaves.
Credit Mobilier scandal
Credit Mobilier was a railroad construction company that was created to build the Union Pacific Railroad. In the 1870s, its tactics were found to be fraudulent. They had involved members of Congress and the vice president.
"Cross of Gold" speech
William Jennings Bryan speech in defense of American farmers against the Gold Standard.
Doctrine of nullification
Based on belief of The Constitution is a compact among sovereign states.
Dorothea Dix
Reformer for treatment of people with mental and emotional disabilities.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Supreme Court ruled that African Americans had no civil rights and led to the nullification of the Missouri Compromise.
Eli Whitney
Responsible for invention of cotton gin and interchangeable parts.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Promoted the vote for women in 19th century. Organized the Seneca Falls Convention for that purpose.
Emancipation Proclamation
In 1863, Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in order to free slaves in areas under Confederate control.
Embargo Act of 1807
As a result of continued British and French attacks on American shipping as part of the Napoleonic Wars, President Jefferson passes this law to ban all foreign trade to and from the United States. The result was a near-collapse of New England's import-export industry; the cessation of legal trade with Canada; an increase in smuggling of British goods into the United States; and a sharp decrease in the value of American farm surplus. Was extraordinarily unpopular and was repealed before Jefferson left office.
Emma Willard
Reformer for women's education.
Era of Good Feelings
Refers to period from 1812 to 1828, when US was governed under a one-party system that promoted nationalism and cooperation. It centers on the period of the James Monroe's presidency.
Erie Canal
resulted in economic boon for New York City, built in 1817 and finished in 1825, it was America's first major canal project.
Ernest Hemingway
20th century, naturalist writer.
Eugene V. Debs
A prominent socialist leader and five-time presidential candidate formed the American Railway Union and led the Pullman Strike in 1894. He also helped found the Industrial Workers of the World in 1905. He was imprisoned for denouncing the government's aggressive tactics under the Espionage Act and Sedition Amendment. He was released in 1921.
Exclusion Act of 1882
Preventing Chinese from settling in the United States.
Farmers' Alliance
During the 1880's this group replaced the Grange as the support group for the nation's farmers. They were central to the founding of the Populist party in the Midwest and South.
Federalism
The system under which national and state governments share constitutional power is called.
Fifteenth Amendment
Ratified in 1870, it prohibited the denial of voting rights to any citizen based on "race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
Pertained to the conflict with the British over the Oregon territory.
First Bank of United States
Was chartered in 1791 to regulate the national currency and help establish the public credit of the United States. It was a key feature of Hamilton's economic program to unify the country under strong financial institutions, but was strongly opposed by Jefferson and his Democratic-Republicans. Ultimately the bank was not rechartered by either President Jefferson or Madison and thus ceased to exist in 1811.
Force Bill
Part of the Compromise of 1933, the Bill authorized President Jackson to use arms to collect customs duties in South Carolina.
Fourteenth Amendment
Ratified in 1866, the Fourteenth Amendment defines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post-Civil War issues.
Freedmen's Bureau
Established in 1865 and staffed by Union army officers, the Bureau worked to protect black rights in the South and to provide employment, medical care, and education to Southern blacks.
Freeport Doctrine
Stephen Douglas's belief that slavery can only exist where it is supported by local law.
Fugitive Slave Law
Originally passed in 1793 and strengthened as part of the Compromise of 1850, this act allowed Southerners to send posses onto Northern soil to retrieve runaway slaves. This acct was vigorously resisted by many Northerners.
Gag rule
During the 1830s, abolitionists sent endless petitions to Congress demanding the outlawing of slavery in Washington, D.C. In response Southerners pushed the gag rule through Congress, which tabled all abolitionist petitions and prevented anti-slavery discussed. It was repealed in 1844 under increased pressure from Northern abolitionists.
Gettysburg Address
Perhaps the most famous American speech by a president, here Lincoln recast the war as a historic test of the ability of a democracy to survive.
Gibbons v. Ogden
The Supreme Court declared that states could not interfere or tax inter-state trade.
"Gilded Age"
Mark Twain coined the phrase "the Gilded Age" to describe material wealth of the United States of the 1870's.
Gospel of Wealth
Andrew Carnegie's belief that wealthy men are to consider their wealth as trustee funds for them to administer in a manner that is in the best interests of all.
grandfather clause
Created by many Southern states in 1895 to exempt anyone who was able to vote before 1867 or their descendant from having to meet strict literacy or property requirement for voting. This was symbolic of inequalities between blacks and whites.
Grange
Formed in 1867 as a support system for struggling western farmers. The Grange offered farmers education and fellowship, providing a forum for homesteaders to share advice and emotional support at social functions. It also represented farmers' needs in dealings with big business and the federal government.
Ulysses S. Grant
The most famous general of the Civil War and later president from 1869 to 1877. His administration was marred by corruption.
Great Debate
Was an 18-month discussion in Congress over Clay's proposed compromise to admit California as a free state, allow the remained of the Mexican cession (Utah and New Mexico territories) to be decided by popular sovereignty, and strengthen the Fugitive Slave Act. Eventually these acts passed as the Compromise of 1850.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Promoted the vote for women in 19th century and was the was the author of the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Harriet Tubman
Helped formed the Underground Railroad to free slaves from the south and was known as the "Moses" of her people. Also led raids to free slaves during the Civil War.
Hartford Convention
A Federalist Party convention during the War of 1812. Several New England Federalists threatened to secede from the Union; the delegates argued that states possessed the right to nullify federal law; the resolutions of the Convention included a call for the end of the War of 1812; the Convention significantly weakened the Federalist party by making it appear unpatriotic.
Compromise of 1877 (Hayes-Tilden Compromise)
This compromise resolved the conflict arising from the presidential election of 1876 - an extremely close election in which the electoral votes of three separate states were in dispute. To minimize protest from Democrats and allow the Republican Rutherford B. Hayes to be seated as President, Republicans agreed to end Reconstruction by removing federal troops from the last two occupied states in the South.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
An early American fiction writer, whose most famous work, The Scarlet Letter, explored the moral dilemmas of adultery in a Puritan community. Also a close friend of President Franklin Pierce and helped developed Pierce's campaign literature.
Haymarket Riot
In 1886, workers held rally in Chicago to protest policy brutality against strikers. The riot erupted in violence after someone threw a bomb, killing seven policemen and prompting a police backlash. After the riot, leaders of the Knights of Labor were arrested and imprisoned, and public support for the union cause plunged.
Henry David Thoreau
A discipline of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thoreau was a prominent transcendentalist writer. He advocated living life according to one's conscience, removed from materialism and repressive social codes.
Herman Melville
Author of Moby-Dick. Was not recognized for his genius in his lifetime but the book was later seen as a Magnum Opus.
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, this Act encouraged settlement of the West by offering 160 acres of land to anyone who would pay ten dollars, live on the land for five years, and cultivate and improve it.
Homestead Strike
In 1892, steelworkers near Pittsburgh staged the strike against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot that began when scabs arrived to break the strike. Federal troops were called in to suppress the violence.
Horace Mann
A prominent proponent of public school reform, who increased state spending on schools, lengthening the school year, divided the students into grades, and introduced standardized textbooks. He set the standard for public school reform throughout the nation.
How the Other Half Lives
Jacob Riis revealed the plight of European immigrants in the tenements of New York City.
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
After the Radical Republicans passed the Tenure of Office Act to prevent Johnson from dismissing any member of Lincoln's mostly Republican cabinet, Johnson suspended the Secretary of War in defiance and was impeached. He escaped a conviction and removal from office by one vote in the Senate.
Andrew Jackson
The 7th President of the United States, Andrew Jackson founded the Democratic Party and was known as a defender of the Common Man. He was the first Western President, and was a strong-willed and determined leader who opposed federal support for internal improvements and the second Bank of the United States. He also fought for states' rights, manhood suffrage (for whites only) and Native American removal. He was also the only president to pay off the entire Federal debt, but his unsound fiscal policies led directly to the Panic of 1837 and a 5-year depression.
Jacksonian Democracy
Jackson was a "common man" who rose to power because of looser voting requirements. His ascendancy to the presidency symbolized the egalitarian political conditions at that time. It also reflects greater participation of male voters in elections and increased public education.
Democratic Party
Formed in response to corruption during the 1824 presidential election. Jackson called John Quincy Adams' deal with Henry Clay a Corrupt Bargain and split the Democratic-Republican Party into two parties - the National Republicans (later the Whigs) and the Democrats.
James Fenimore Cooper
Created first western literary hero. Wrote The Last of the Mohicans.
Jane Addams's Hull House
Sought to help immigrants adjust to urban life.
John Jay
First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and later Governor of New York, Jay played an important role in the establishment of the new government under the constitution. He was one of the authors of the Federalist Papers and also was instrumental in passing a gradual abolition bill that eventually outlawed slavery in New York.
Jay's Treaty of 1794
Britain would agree to evacuate forts in western regions of the United States; open limited trade with the British West Indies, but said nothing about the British impressment of American sailors.
Jefferson Davis
First president of the Confederate States of America.
Jim Crow laws
Laws passed in the South after 1876 to promote segregation.
John Brown's raid
In attacking the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, he hoped to incite slave rebellions throughout the South.
Andrew Johnson
The 17th President of the United States, Democrat Andrew Johnson became president upon the death of Lincoln and remained in office until 1869. Johnson's relationship with Congress declined steadily during his presidency, culminating in impeachment proceedings in 1868. He was known for his soft hand in dealing with southern states during Reconstruction, ultimately allowing for black codes, Jim Crow laws, and other curtailments of Civil Rights for blacks.
Josiah Strong
Supported American imperialist policy in 19th century.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Created the court system by establishing a federal district court in each state and affirmed that the Supreme Court exercised final jurisdiction in all legal matters.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Proposed to settle the issue of slavery's expansion into western territories by establishing popular sovereignty.
Knights of Labor
Founded in 1869, the Knights were one of the first major labor organizations in the US. The Knights fell into decline after one of several leaders was executed for killing a policeman in the Haymarket riot of 1886.
Know Nothing Party
Developed in the 1850s and focused on issues of antislavery, anti-Catholicism, nativism, and temperance. Party declined with the rise of the Republicans at the end of the decade.
Robert E. Lee
Commanding general of the Confederate Army. He was a brilliant strategist and beloved by his troops; one of the main reasons why the Confederacy lasted as long as it did.
"Leatherstock Tales"
James Fenimore Cooper writings of the lives of men and women on the North American frontier.
Lewis and Clark
Were commissioned by Thomas Jefferson to explore the new territory of the Louisiana Purchase, collecting scientific data and specimens and charter the territory to the west of the Mississippi. Their journey spurred national interest in exploration and settlement of the West.
The Liberator
Created by the abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison, from 1831 to 1865--an influential newspaper that expressed new and controversial opinions, such as the belief that blacks deserved legal rights equal to those of whites.
Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan
Was designed to facilitate the quick return of the southern states to the Union.
Abraham Lincoln
The 16th President of the US, Republican Abraham Lincoln emerged during the late 1850s as the nation's top Republican. His victory in the presidential election of 1860 precipitated the secession of southern states, paving the way for the Civil War. Lincoln's primary goal during and after the War was to restore the Union and end the institution of slavery.
Looking Backward--Edward Bellamy
A utopian novel written in response to The disillusionment with an increasingly competitive and industrial society.
Louisiana Purchase
Thomas Jefferson secured western territory from France to fulfill his dream of an agrarian republic. Originally, he was only planning to purchase the city of New Orleans but Napoleon offered Jefferson the whole territory for little more than the price of the city. This purchase represents Jefferson's shift from a Strict Constructionist view of Federal power to a Loose Constructionist view.
Lowell System
Created to enticing rural New England women to work in textile mills.
Lucretia Mott
Promoted the vote for women in 19th century.
James Madison
The 4th President of the United States, Democratic-Republican James Madison began his career as a Federalist. He was one of the major contributors to the creation of the Constitution and later one of the authors of the Federalist Papers, earning him the title "Father of the Constitution." He later became critical of excessive power in government and left the Federalist Party to join Jefferson in the Republican-Democratic Party. His term as President was marked primarily by the War of 1812, which ended in a stalemate.
U.S.S. Maine
The US battleship sunk by an explosion in Havana harbor in 1898. The sinking of the Maine combined with the effect of yellow journalism led the American public to push strongly for war against Spain.
Manifest Destiny
19th century American desire to expand westward in the name of God, nature, civilization, and progress.
Marbury v. Madison
Established the practice of judicial review.
John Marshall
Served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835. Under his leadership, the Court became as powerful a federal force as the executive and legislative branches.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court ruled that that federal power had supremacy over the power of the states and states could not tax federal institutions, such as the Second Bank of the United States.
William McKinley
The 25th President of the United States, Republican William McKinley defeated Democratic and Populist candidate William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 election and defeated him again for reelection in 1900. He was a fervent supporter of big business, pushing for high protective tariffs and "sound money" based on the gold-standard. Under his leadership, the US became an imperial world power, defeating the Spanish in the Spanish-America War and annexing Hawaii. He was assassinated by an anarchist in 1901.
Mexican-American War
As a result of border tensions between the US and Mexico, the US declared war against Mexico in 1846 by positioning General Zachary Taylor's forces between the two disputed borders. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which ended the war, granted the US possession of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, and parts of modern-day Colorado, Kansas, and Wyoming in exchange for $15 million.
Midnight Judges
Federal judges appointed by John Adams to prevent the newly elected Jefferson from controlling the courts. His appointment of these judges led to the case of Marbury v. Madison which declared the Judiciary Act unconstitutional and established the process of Judicial Review.w
Monroe Doctrine
The United States would fight the creation of new colonies in the Western Hemisphere, although it would not interfere with existing ones.
James Monroe
The 5th President of the United States (and final member of the Virginia Dynasty), James Monroe served as President from 1817 to 1825, his presidency formed the core of the Era of good Feelings, characterized by the consolidation of the one-party system, an upsurge of American nationalism, and encouraging political harmony. Amid the Panic of 1819 and heightened tensions over Missouri, Monroe turned the Democratic-Republican party away from its agrarian roots towards Henry Clay's neofederalist American System. He chartered the Second Bank of the US to help deal with the financial crisis and with Henry Clay's help oversaw the Missouri Compromise.
Montgomery Ward
Creating mail order catalogs, allowing rural people to purchase a wide assortment of goods in late 19th century.
Muckrakers
Journalists whose reports exposed corruption in government and business. Important muckrakers include Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell, and Lincoln Steffens.
Mugwumps
This was a derogatory term for members of the Republican Party who supported the conservative Democrat Grover Cleveland in the 1884 election over Republican James Blaine, who was known for being particularly corrupt.
Munn v. Illinois
This 1876 Supreme Court case sated that Congress could not regulate commerce within a state and that the federal government did not have the right to regulate private businesses even when "public interests" are involved. This ruling has since been modified.
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845)
Presented a picture of slavery as a harsh and oppressive system; complemented the work being done by northern abolitionists; was written by an escaped slave who had become an abolitionist; called for complete political and economic equality.
Nullification Order of South Carolina
An attempt by South Carolina to nullify the validity of the Tariff of 1828, an example of states-rights philosophy that raged from 1828 to 1833.
On Civil Disobedience
Horrified at the prospect that land acquired during the Mexican War might promote the expansion of slavery, Henry David Thoreau refused to pay taxes that would support the war. He described his method of protest in a pamphlet.
Open Door Policy
Developed by Secretary of State John Hay, the policy aimed to combat the European sphere of influence that threatened to squeeze American business interests out of Chinese markets.
Oregon Territory
The United States took control of the southern half of the Oregon Territory by negotiating a settlement with Great Britain, which also laid claim to the area.
Panic of 1837
Caused by unregulated lending practices on the part of Andrew Jackson's "pet banks."
Panic of 1873
In 1874, because of overexpansion and over speculation, the largest bank in the nation collapsed, followed by the collapse of many smaller banks, business firms, and even the stock market. The panic precipitated a five-year national depression.
Pendleton Act
Passed in 1883, this act established a civil service exam for many public posts and created hiring systems based on merit rather than on political favors, or patronage. The act aimed to eliminate the corrupt hiring practices that had so long plagued the US government.
Personal liberty laws
Passed in North in 1850's in response to the Fugitive Slave Act.
"Pet banks"
So called banks that Jackson deposited money in order to destroy the bank of the United States.
Plessy v. Ferguson
A majority of the Supreme Court held that segregation did not imply the inferiority of any race, the Fourteenth Amendment did not prohibit segregation, legislation could not equalize the races, if they were not equal in fact, and if accommodations were separate but equal, they were not discriminatory.
James Polk
The 11th President of the US, Democrat James Polk served as president from 1845 to 1849 and was a firm believer in expansion. Polk led the US into the Mexican-American War, in which the US acquired Texas, New Mexico, California, and other pieces of the American Southwest. He also averted war with Britain by negotiating an equitable split of the Oregon Territory. Many Northerners saw Polk as an agent of Southern will aiming to expand the nation in order to extend slavery into the West. Since he was so successful at achieving all of his aims in a single term, he decided not to seek re-election. He was also the only President who previously served as Speaker of the House.
Popular Sovereignty
First espoused by Democratic presidential candidates in 1848 and eventually championed by Stephen A. Douglas, popular sovereignty was the principle stating that Congress should not interfere with the issue of slavery's expansion, but rather leave the question up to each territory. This belief became the core of the Democratic position on slavery's expansion during the 1850s.
Populist Party
A vehicle for agrarian protest against the economic system in the late 19th century. Program of graduated income tax, increase supply of money, government ownership of the railroads, an eight-hour day for workers. Wanted the government to increase the amount of money in circulation because they believed that doing so would result in inflation, which would make it easier for farmers to repay their loans.
Presidential Reconstruction
Lincoln's and Johnson's plans that would have made it easy for the former Southern confederate states to rejoin the Union. These plans were invalidated by the Reconstruction Act of 1867.
Progress and Poverty
Henry George's utopian vision of an American society in which that the government use tax income to fund social programs.
Pullman Strike of 1884
It was caused by grievances about unsafe working condition and led by Eugene Debs. The boycott crippled railroad traffic in Chicago. The courts ruled that the strikers had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act and issued an injunction against them. When the strikers refused to obey the injunction, Debs was arrested and federal troops marched in to crush the strike. Thirteen died and fifty-three were injured.
Radical Republicans
Emerged in Congress in the years leading up to the Civil War, this group was led by Congressman Thaddeus Stevens and Senator Charles Sumner. The Radical demanded a strict Reconstruction policy in order to punish the Southern states. They favored the civil and political rights for Black people. They were a powerful force until the mid 1870s.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Had a profound impact on American intellectual thought because he stressed the need for individuals to be self-reliant.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
The most important act of Congressional reconstruction, which struck down the previous plans of Lincoln and Johnson. It provided for military occupation of the former confederacy and forced states to accept black suffrage, and accepting the 13th through 15th Amendments before they could rejoin the United States.
Reform movements of 1830-40
Reform movements in this decade were dominated by women, many inspired by the Second Great Awakening. Most reform groups were devoted to improving the lots of disenfranchised groups and also promoting temperance (prohibition of alcohol). Their alliance with the Whigs was stronger than their alliance with the Democrats.
Republican Platform of 1856
In their first ever national election, the Republican Party called for the Homestead Act to promote settlement of the west, a central route for the transcontinental railroad, high protective tariffs, and the Free Soil position of not extending slavery to the west.
Richard Sears
Creating mail order catalogs, allowing rural people to purchase a wide assortment of goods in late 19th century.
Horatio Alger
An author of "rags to riches" novels that portrayed characters who rose from poverty to the highest echelons of business. His books romanticized the "American Dream."
John D. Rockefeller
He served a chairman of the Standard Oil Trust, which grew to control nearly all of the United States' oil production and distribution. This is a classic example of vertical integration, control of production of raw materials to finished product.
Scalawag
This is a derisive term that Democrats used to designate Southern moderates who cooperated with Republicans during Reconstruction.
Second Bank of US
The Bank, chartered in 1816 as part of Henry Clay's American System, served as a depository for federal funds and a creditor for state banks. It became unpopular after the panic of 1819, and suspicion of corruption haunted it under its charter expired in 1836, after President Jackson vetoed the re-chartering of the bank.
Second Great Awakening
A protestant wave that emerged in the early 1800s in reaction to growing secularization and rationalism, rejecting the Enlightenment ideals and Deism of the American Founding Fathers. The movement was in alignment with Jacksonian Democracy, stressing self-determination and individual empowerment, and led to a rise in the number of Methodists and Baptists especially. Charles Grandison Finney was a notable preacher who spoke the "burned-over" district of western New York.
Second War of Independence
Charles Beard's term for the Civil War, marking the formative change in American history, with the alliance of eastern capitalists and western farmers. It eliminated the old economic system of slavery and set the country on the road to rapid and unhindered economic growth.
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the Seneca Falls Declaration adopted the style of the Declaration of Independence to seek equality for women.
Settlement houses
Established as a means of combating problems caused by urban poverty perhaps the most famous were those established by Jane Addams in Chicago.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Initially created to curtail the growth of monopolies, but in fact mostly used in the 1890s to prevent workers from striking.
Social Darwinism
Argued that Americans who suffered financially and socially from industrialization only required some luck arid honest effort to succeed in society.
Spanish-American War
A war fought in 1898 between the United States and Spain, primarily caused by the Cuban independence movement against Spain and "Butcher" Weyler's harsh response to it (placing dissidents into concentration camps and slaughtering others). Also, the war was spurred on by Yellow Journalism (especially in the Hearst and Pulitzer papers) the publication of the de Lome letter (in which the Spanish foreign minister described President McKinley as ineffectual), and especially the accidental sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana Harbor (an event blamed on Spain). The war was fought primarily in Cuba and in the Philippines and ended with the Treaty of Paris (1898), in which the United States was granted Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines as new territories.
Philippine-American War
A war fought between the American colonial government and the nationalist forces of Emilio Aguinaldo that sought independence. Aguinaldo and other Filipinos, who had fought alongside the Americans during the Spanish-American War, were incensed by America's possession of the Philippines after the Treaty of Paris. The war lasted three years and ended in an American victory, but not before more than 300,000 Filipinos were killed.
Specie Circular of 1836
An attempt by Andrew Jackson to stem the over speculation that resulted after he failed to recharter the Second Bank of the US, the Specie Circular mandated that government lands could be purchased only with gold or silver.
Spoils System
Used by Andrew Jackson to promote the distribution of government jobs to members of the president's party.
Thaddeus Stevens
The leaders of the Radical Republicans in Congress, he was a gifted orator and an outspoken legislator devoted to stringent and punitive Reconstruction. Stevens worked toward social and political equality for Southern blacks.
Stephen Douglas
Helped in passing the Compromise of 1850 and supported the concept of popular sovereignty and authored the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He beat Abraham Lincoln for Illinois senate seat in 1858, but the lost presidency in 1860.
Strict vs. loose constructionists
Differed over the interpretation of the elastic clause of the Constitution. Strict constructionists were initially led by Thomas Jefferson, while the loose constructionists were led by Alexander Hamilton.
Susan B. Anthony
She was one of the leading spokesperson with who promoted the vote for women in 19th century.
Teller Amendment
The US adopted this amendment just before the Spanish-American War, in 1898 and declared that the US would not acquire Cuba and would allow it to become an independent country once Spain was defeated.
Ten percent plan
Known as Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction, it was more lenient than many members of Congress, especially the Radical republicans, hoped to impose. Southern states would be readmitted to the Union once ten percent of the states' voting population took an oath of loyalty to the Union and states established new non-Confederate governments.
Tenure of Office Act of 1867
Prohibited a president from removing any government official who had been confirmed by the Senate without first getting Senate approval.
Thirteenth Amendment
Ratified in 1865, the amendment prohibited slavery in the US.
Thomas Jefferson
The 3rd President of the United States and the primary author of the Declaration of Independence, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams in the 1800 election (dubbed the Revolution of 1800) and defeated Charles Cotesworth Pinckney for reelection in 1804. His term was marked by shipping conflicts with the Barbary Pirates, Britain, and France, the Louisiana Purchase, the banning of the international slave trade in 1807.
Trail of Tears
The marches in which the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the Indian Territory in 1838-40, with thousands of Cherokees dying on the way.
Transcendentalism
Literary/philosophical movement led by Ralph Waldo Emerson and included Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller that emphasized the importance of the human spirit and utopian communities.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Ended the Mexican-American War in 1848 and resulted in the acquisition by the United States of Texas, New Mexico, California, and other territories that now comprise the American Southwest from Mexico.
Nat Turner
He led a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. This reinforced the Virginia legislature's laws against emancipation and led to the "gag rule," which outlawed any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
This novel, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, portrayed the evils of the institution of slavery. Published in 1852, the novel aroused sympathy for runaway slaves among all classes of Northerners and hardened many Northerners against the South's insistence upon continuing slavery.
U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co.
After the Sherman Antitrust Act was passed in 1890 to outlaw restraints of trade, this Supreme Court case effectively disabled it. The Court said that the Act did not apply to manufacturing.
Utopian Communities
These romanticized communities sprang up in the US beginning in the late 1820s. American reformers attempted to build perfect societies and present models for other communities to emulate. Most of these communities collapsed by the late 1840s.
Vertical Integration
Strategy that industrialists used to controlling all stages of their industry to keep it self-reliant. By purchasing major businesses in the supply chain, such industrialists could offer lower prices to consumers while restricting necessary materials for their competitors, establishing an effective monopoly.
W.E.B. Du Bois
An African-American leader who opposed the gradual approach of achieving equal rights presented by Booker T. Washington. Du Bois argued for immediate equal treatment and equal educational opportunities for blacks. He helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909.
War Hawks
A group of Congressmen and Senators primarily from western states who thought that peace with Britain would result in the disgrace of the United State. They wanted to end the recession in the southern and western regions of the United States, annex Canada, and prevent British alliance with Native Americans (whom the British were helping to establish a buffer state between the US and Canada). They were a major factor in the push for the War of 1812.
War of 1812
War between US and Great Britain. The American public believed that the US had won the war after news spread of general Andrew Jackson's decisive victory at the Battle of New Orleans. For years following this victory, an ebullient spirit of nationalism and optimism pervaded America.
Booker T. Washington
He was the first principal of the Tuskegee Institute and adopted a modern approach in addressing racism and segregation, urging his fellow blacks to learn vocational skills and strive for gradual improvements in their social, political, and economic status. Often described as an "accommodationist" in contrast to W.E.B. Du Bois' strong advocacy for change.
Daniel Webster
One of the country's leading statesmen in the first half of the 19th century. He was a Federalist lawyer, who became a powerful defender of northern interests, supporting the 1828 tariff and objective to nullification. He later became a leader of the Whig Party.
Whigs
The Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong leadership and promoted Henry Clay's American System. They disappeared from the political scene by the 1850s when they split over the issue of slavery. The term Whig was drawn from the British Whig (pro-parliament) party, which opposed royal authority. The Whigs were thus form in opposition to what they called "King Andrew"
William Graham Sumner
Most responsible for applying social Darwinian thought to American society in the late nineteenth century.
William Lloyd Garrison
Argued that slavery should be abolished immediately without compensation to slave owners. Published an abolitionist newspaper known as The Liberator.
Wilmot Proviso
A proviso issued by Daniel Wilmot, a Democratic Representative from Pennsylvania, to prohibit the expansion of slavery into territory gained from the Mexican war. This position later became the basis of the Free Soil party.
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Founded in 1874, the WTCU worked alongside the Anti-Saloon League to push for temperance (the prohibition of alcohol).
Worcester v. Georgia
Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in 1832 that the Cherokee tribe comprised a "domestic dependent nation" within Georgia which should be protected from the harassment of Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Policy. Andrew Jackson refused to abide by the decision and the Cherokee removal continued on unabated.
XYZ Affair
In responded to continued French aggression at sea, John Adams sent a diplomatic envoy to France to negotiate for peace in 1797 and conduct a peace treaty similar to Jay's Treaty with Britain. The French foreign minister refused to meet with the US delegation of Elbridge Gerry, John Marshall, and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, and tried to extort money from the Americans in exchange for negotiation rights. This widely publicized attempt at extortion aroused outrage among the American people and led directly to the formation of the US Navy and Marine Corps and the undeclared naval Quasi-War between the US and France.
Yellow Journalism
This refers to the exaggerated and sensationalized stories about Spanish military atrocities against Cuban rebels that were published in the period leading up to the Spanish-American War. It swayed American public opinion in favor of war against Spain.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These 1798 acts by President John Adams in the midst of the Quasi-War with France gave the federal government unprecedented power to infringe upon individual liberty. Acts were made up of the Alien Act, Naturalization Act, and Sedition Act - respectively these gave the President power to deport immigrants, called for a longer period for immigrants to achieve naturalization, and made it illegal to slander the Federal government (though one could criticize the government as long as he or she was telling the truth). These acts were directed at the pro-French Democratic-Republicans which dominated the immigrant vote and were used to shut down Democratic-Republican newspapers.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, this act grated Jackson the funds and authority to move Native Americans to assigned lands in the West. It primarily targets the Cherokee tribe in Georgia, as part of the federal government's broad plan to claim Native American lands inside the boundaries of the states.
John Adams
The 2nd President of the United States, Federalist John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson narrowly in the 1896 election. Adams' term was marked by continued conflict with France, particularly the undeclared naval "Quasi-War" after the XYZ Affair. He also signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts which nearly led to secession.
Grover Cleveland
The 22nd and 24th President of the United States, Democrat Grover Cleveland defeated James Blaine in the 1884 election and President Benjamin Harrison in the 1892 election. In addition, he won the popular vote against Harrison in 1888 but lost the electoral college. Cleveland was the leader of the conservative, pro-business Bourbon Democrats and was an opponent of tariffs, Free Silver, imperialism, and political machines. His reformist stances earned him the support of the Republican Mugwumps in the 1884 election, as they viewed James Blaine as particularly corrupt. However, the onset of the Panic of 1893 and Cleveland's lackluster response led to a Republican wave in the next election and the downfall of the Bourbon Democrats.
John Quincy Adams
The 6th President of the United States, Democratic-Republican John Quincy Adams defeated Andrew Jackson by making a deal with Henry Clay, even though he received fewer electoral and popular votes. He continued Clay's American System but was defeated by Jackson in a rematch in 1828. Adams was the son of former President John Adams and had previously served as Secretary of State under James Monroe, concluding the Adams-Onís Treaty that coordinated the sale of Florida from Spain to the United States.
William Henry Harrison
The 9th President of the United States, Whig William Henry Harrison was the hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe (during Tecumseh's Rebellion) and ran the first "log cabin" campaign for President. He was also the shortest serving President, lasting only around thirty days as he died of pneumonia after refusing to wear a coat during his inauguration speech (in the midst of a blizzard).
John Tyler
The 10th President of the United States, Whig John Tyler ascended to the presidency after President William Henry Harrison's death. He was promptly kicked out of the Whig party for not supporting Henry Clay's American System. During the Civil War, Tyler joined the Confederacy and served as a Confederate Senator and as the President of the Confederate Congress.
Martin Van Buren
The 8th President of the United States, Martin Van Buren was a founder of the Democratic Party and served as Andrew Jackson's Second Vice-President. His term was marked by an economic depression after the Panic of 1837, so he was defeated by the Whig war hero William Henry Harrison in 1840.
Zachary Taylor
The 12th President of the US, Whig Zachary Taylor was a war hero and the lead general during the Mexican-American War. His term was marked by bitter disputes over the implementation of slavery in the territories gained from Mexico, and no resolution was reached in his lifetime. He died less than halfway through his term as a result of gastroenteritis.
Millard Fillmore
The 13th President of the United States, Whig Millard Fillmore ascended to the Presidency after the death of President Taylor. Unlike Taylor, Fillmore was able to conclude several compromises over the new western territories (known collectively as the Compromise of 1850) which heightened tensions over the issue of slavery. Fillmore was unpopular so he was not re-nominated in 1852, but he later served as the presidential nominee for the nativist Know Nothing Party In 1856.
Franklin Pierce
The 14th President of the US, Democrat Franklin Pierce was a close friend of Nathaniel Hawthorne and oversaw the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the resulting period of violence that followed its repeal of the Missouri Compromise. As his policies contributed to the instability and sectionalism of the 1850s which ultimately led to secession, Pierce is often ranked among the worst Presidents in US History.
Rutherford B. Hayes
The 19th President of the US, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won the 1876 election against Samuel Tilden despite losing the popular vote and the electoral counts of three states being disputed. Ultimately Democrats dropped their disputes over the vote count of the Republicans agreed to pull troops from the south (Compromise of 1877). His election is therefore seen as the end of the Reconstruction period. While President, Hayes supported the Gold Standard, high tariffs, and equal treatment of races. He was also strongly anti-union, issuing an injunction and sending troops to put down the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. Hayes also vetoed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which Congress scrambled to pass as racial resentment heightened after the Panic of 1873.
James Garfield
The 20th President of the United States, Republican James Garfield won the 1880 election after President Hayes retired. He was President for less than six months, but spent that period eliminating corruption from the Post Office and proposing Civil Service reform. He was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, an insane man who believed he was passed over for an Ambassadorship by Garfield and Secretary of State James Blaine.
Chester A. Arthur
The 21st President of the United States, Republican Chester A. Arthur ascended to the presidency after President Garfield's assassination. Arthur was a champion of Civil Service reform, passing the Pendleton Act which made Civil Service based more on merit than patronage, and was also responsible for a reinvigoration of the American Navy. He also begrudgingly signed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1883, which banned Chinese immigrants to the US and denied American citizenship to anyone of Chinese descent, and passed an anti-polygamy law in response to challenges with the Mormons in the west.
Benjamin Harrison
The 23rd President of the United States, Republican Benjamin Harrison was the grandson of former President William Henry Harrison. He defeated President Cleveland in the 1888 election despite losing the popular vote. While President, Harrison was a champion of the high McKinley Tariff (which created a budget surplus), and passed the Sherman Antitrust Act. He also created the National Forest Reserves, the precursor to the National Parks.
Eleventh Amendment
Ratified in 1795 after the Supreme Court case Chisholm v. Georgia, the Eleventh Amendment makes states immune from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders; lays the foundation for sovereign immunity.
Twelfth Amendment
Ratified in 1804 after the 1800 election resulted in an electoral tie, the Twelfth Amendment revises presidential election procedures so that electors vote for a President and Vice-President rather than cast two votes for President.
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