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a principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are thwarted
a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
a phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values
Diffusion of responsibility
the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction; has a rapid onset, reaches its peak quickly, and begins to diminish within just a few months
an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being; takes time to get started, grows slowly, and need never stop growing
the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship; cost-benefit seems favorable when we feel it is the best we can do
a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal; spouses are more distressed when their respective cost-benefit ratios are different than when they are unfavorable
is a customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a culture; unwritten rule that governs social behavior
phenomenon that occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate
is a phenomenon that occurs when a person's behavior provides information about what is good or right
a phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person
the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion
an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
the process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong
a phenomenon that occurs when observers perceive what they expect to perceive
the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them
the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by situation; sometimes called fundamental attribution error
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