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PSY Exam 3-Chapter 13

STUDY
PLAY
Social psychology
the study of the causes and consequences of sociality
Agression
behavior whose purpose is to harm another
Frustration-agression hypothesis
a principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are thwarted
Cooperation
behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit
Group
a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others
Prejudice
is a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership
Discrimination
a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
Deindividuation
a phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values
Diffusion of responsibility
the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
Altruism
behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself
Kin selection
the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives
Reciprocal altruism
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
Mere exposure effect
the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure
Passionate love
an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction; has a rapid onset, reaches its peak quickly, and begins to diminish within just a few months
Companionate love
an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being; takes time to get started, grows slowly, and need never stop growing
Social exchange
the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
Comparison level
the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship; cost-benefit seems favorable when we feel it is the best we can do
Equity
a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal; spouses are more distressed when their respective cost-benefit ratios are different than when they are unfavorable
Social influence
the ability to control another person's behavior
Norm
is a customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a culture; unwritten rule that governs social behavior
Normative influence
phenomenon that occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate
Norm of reciprocity
the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them
Door-in-the face technique
a strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavior
Conformity
the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it
Obedience
the tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do
Attitude
an enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event
Belief
an enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event
Informational influence
is a phenomenon that occurs when a person's behavior provides information about what is good or right
Persuasion
a phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person
Systematic persuasion
the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason
Heuristic persuasion
the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion
Foot-in-the-door technique
involves a small request followed by a larger request
Cognitive dissonance
an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
Social cognition
the processes by which people come to understand others
Stereotyping
the process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong
Perceptual confirmation
a phenomenon that occurs when observers perceive what they expect to perceive
Self-fulfilling prophecy
the tendency for people to cause what they expect to see
Subtyping
the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them
Attribution
an inference about the cause of a person's behavior
Correspondence bias
the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by situation; sometimes called fundamental attribution error
Actor-observer effect
the tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others