46 terms

CS 110 Chapter 8

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Integration
Allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems
Forward Integration
Takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes
Backward Integration
Takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes
Enterprise System
Provide enterprisewide support and data access for a firm's operations and business processes
Enterprise application integration (EAI)
Connects the plans, methods, and tools aimed at integrating separate enterprise systems
Middleware
Several different types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications
Enterprise application integration middleware
Takes a new approach to middleware by packaging commonly used applications together, reducing the time needed to integrate applications from multiple vendors
Plan
This is the strategic portion of supply chain management. A company must have a plan for managing all the resources that go toward meeting customer demand for products or services. A big piece of planning is developing a set of metrics to monitor the supply chain so that it is efficient, costs less, and delivers high quality and value to customers.
Source
Companies must carefully choose reliable suppliers that will deliver goods and services required for making products. Companies must also develop a set of pricing, delivery, and payment processes with suppliers and create metrics for monitoring and improving the relationships.
Make
This is the step where companies manufacture their products or services. This can include scheduling the activities necessary for production, testing, packaging, and preparing for delivery. This is by far the most metric-intensive portion of the supply chain, measuring quality levels, production output, and worker productivity.
Deliver
This step is commonly referred to as logistics. During this step, companies must be able to receive orders from customers, fulfill the orders via a network of warehouses, pick transportation companies to deliver the products, and implement a billing and invoicing system to facilitate payments.
Logistics
The set of processes that plans for and controls the efficient and effective transportation and storage of supplies from suppliers to consumers.
Return
This is typically the most problematic step in the supply chain. Companies must create a network for receiving defective and excess products and support customers who have problems with delivered products
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
The management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
Supply chain visibility
The ability to view all area up and down the supply chain in real time
Supply chain planning system
Uses advanced mathematical algorithms to improve the flow and efficiency of the supply chain while reducing inventory
Supply Chain execution system
Automates the different activities of the supply chain
Bullwhip effect
Occurs when distorted product demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain
Demand planning system
Generates demand forecasts using statistical tools and forecasting techniques, so companies can respond faster and more effectively to consumer demands through supply chain enhancements
Cost
An SCM system can cost millions of dollars for the software and millions more for help implementing the system
Complexity
The move towards globalization is increasing complexity in the supply chain
Supply chain event management (SCEM)
enables an organization to react quickly to resolve supply chain issues
Selling Chain Management
applies technology to the activities in the order life cycle from inquiry to sale
Collaborative engineering
allows an organization to reduce the costs required during the design process of a product
Collaborative demand planning
helps organizations reduce their investment in inventory, while improving customer satisfaction through product availability
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability
CRM reporting technology
Help organizations identify their customers across other applications
CRM analysis technology
Help organization segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers
CRM predicting technologies
Help organizations make predictions regarding customer behavior such as which customers are at risk of leaving
Operational CRM
Supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations
Analytical CRM
Supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers
Marketing and operational CRM technology
List generator, campaign management, cross-selling and up-selling
Sales and operational CRM technology
Sales management, contact management, opportunity management
Customer service and operational CRM technology
Contact center, Web-based self-service, call scripting
Sales force automation
A system that automatically tracks all of the steps in the sales process
Sales management CRM system
-Automates each phase of the sales process, helping individual sales representatives coordinate and organize all of their accounts
Contract management CRM systems
Maintains customer contact information and identifies prospective customers for future sales
Opportunity Management CRM system
Targets sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales
Website personalization
Occurs when a website has stored enough data about a person's likes and dislikes to fashion offers more likely to appeal to that person
Enterprise resource planning
Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT systems (or integrated set of IT systems) so that employees can make enterprise-wide decisions by viewing enterprise-wise information on all business operations
Core ERP component
Traditional components included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations
Extended ERP component
Extra compnonets that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations
Accounting and finance ERP component
manage accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management
Production and materials management ERP component
handle the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control
Human Resource ERP component
track employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, performance assessment, and assumes compliance with the legal requirements of multiple jurisdictions and tax authorities
Balanced scorecard
Enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action
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