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Ignatius Loyola

began a religious organization called the Society of Jesus or Jesuits. Believed chief aim of the Jesuits were to do the Roman church's bidding

Ferdinand II

determined to return Bohemia to Romanism by force. Member of the powerful Hapsburg family

Hugh Capet

his coronation marks the birth of the French nationt

Isabella and Ferdinand

joint rulers of Castile and Aragon

John I

his reign marked the beginning of Portugal's greatest days of glory

Prince Henry the Navigator

urged Portugese explorers to sail into uncharted waters and establish new trade. Also established a navigational school to train sailors.

Twelve Articles

a list of the peasants' grievances drawn up by certain moderate preachers in hopes of bettering the life of peasants under Germany's feudal system.

Peasants' Revolt

a breakdown of law and order that was a result of years of mistreatment by nobles under Germany's feudal system. Each revolt ended badly with the last one taking away ALL rights that had been gained over the years.

territorial churches

official government churches to which everyone had to belong

Peace of Augsburg

gave official approval to the territorial churches also established that princes of the territories would determine religion of the territory


a positive outcome of the Counter-Reformation was the attempt to better the morals of the clergy within the Roman church AND the chief purpose was to bring back Protestants to Roman Catholicism either by persuasion or violence


the religious organiztion that became the spiritual arm for the counter-reformation and also known as The Society of Jesus. Spread Catholicism through education

Thirty Years' War

was a war that occurred in phases that was over religious and political issues in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire

Peace of Westphalia

ended thirty years of war with a renewal of the same religious situation that had existed before the war


independant Scandinavians that became proficient seamen


used terror and torture to obtain confessions of heresy from its Protestant victims. It was considered the violent arm of the Counter-Reformation.

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