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Sociology-Quiz Questions (Quizzes 5-7)
Terms in this set (48)
Which of the following contributes to increasing rates of heart disease and hypertension in women?
More women are entering high-level jobs
Hypertension is directly related to stress, which can be attributed to being poor. However, poor African Americans in the United States have rates of hypertension that are similar to middle and upper class African Americans. How would the "tokenism theory" explain this?
All African Americans may still experience discrimination
Which of the following is true with regard to bottled water?
It is more expensive than gasoline by volume.
The main problem of fee-for-service is that doctors have an incentive to:
have patients return for unnecessary visits
Which government program provides medical care for the elderly and the young with disabilities?
What population currently has the highest rate of HIV contraction in the United States?
African American women
What did Bogin find was different in the Mayans' lifestyle that allowed them to grow 4 inches taller in the United States than in Guatemala?
They had access to a better diet.
Which of the following was the result of medical licensing that began in the mid-1800s?
It gave physicians more economic clout.
Married people tend to live longer than unmarried people. It could be that they take better care of themselves when they have the responsibility of a family. It could also be that:
people who are healthier are more likely to get married.
When it comes to health care, Western societies:
are reactive; people tend to go to the doctor only when they decide they are sick
Physician prestige has been on the decline since the 1980s. Which of the following might be a reason?
more people in the medical community are being allowed to prescribe
Which of the following is NOT a volunteer organization in which physicians volunteer to help poor nations?
Equal Health for All
In 1980, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 3:
adopted a medical model of mental illness
Physicians in ancient Rome tended to have lower prestige. This was because:
the surgeons evolved from barbers
After mental illness became "medicalized," what was one major change that occurred?
Medication replaced counseling
What might inhibit American teenagers from reaching their maximum growth potential?
The Whitehall Study found which of the following factors important in determining health outcomes?
What a person does for a living
Which of the following is NOT one of the ways that doctors establish their power?
always have sharp haircuts
Under HMOs, doctors usually don't get more money each time a patient comes in, so the incentive might be to:
undertreat the patient
Poor children can be covered medically by:
Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Plan
The eradication of African river blindness (onchocerciasis) illustrates the connection between
health and economic development
The Whitehall Study found that men in lower ranks had which of the following risk factors?
higher stress levels
Fee-for-service caused a situation where physicians could control the number of (often unnecessary) visits required for treatment. This problem was called:
The explanation for the relationship between socioeconomic status and health that focuses on an individual's social class, and the relative stressors inherent in a lower-class lifestyle, is called:
Reproductive technology has increased the number of multiple births, which leads to the ethical issue of:
whether to abort some of the embryos
Which of the following is a reason for the decline in doctors' authority after 1990?
rising ability of nurse practitioners to treat patients
One of the criticisms of the Whitehall Study is that the researchers did not adequately address the possibility that occupational and health differences were caused by
underlying personality differences
Fee-for-service means physicians are
reimbursed per office visit or procedure by insurance agencies
What public health risk do we face if more and more people fail to complete prescribed courses of antibiotics?
the development of antimicrobial-resistant antigens
According to existing studies, why did the elderly who received more Social Security have higher mortality rates than the elderly who received less Social Security and had to work part-time?
working had a positive impact on their longevity due to social interaction
The "drift explanation" of the relationship between health and socioeconomic status (SES) states that:
genetics and biology affect SES so that people who are healthier have an easier time maintaining a high SES
Which of the following is NOT an argument that would be made by a conflict theorist?
A. At all levels, the system of education in American produces inequality.
B. During elementary school, children are socialized to skills that will help them become adults who will be obedient workers.
C. Contrary to American ideology, schools are not meritocratic places.
D. Schools are the one place where all children, despite their family background, can move up in the world.
Social capital is
the collection of relationships that can facilitate the actions and behaviors of others
Boys are more likely to engage in risky behaviors and experience problems at school; boys are also more likely to ________ than girls.
take make and science AP classes and score higher
Which of the following statements is true with regard to preferential admissions to colleges and universities?
In the last 15 years, admissions preference for athletes has risen steadily, surpassing that of minority students.
Which studies control for family background characteristics, the SAT?
no longer predicts college grades very well
Which of the following trends in current educational achievement is NOT supported by research?
A. Only girls whose parents are college-educated achieve as much as boys.
B. Girls from all backgrounds have started to perform well since the 1960s.
C. The boy-girl educational gap has a limited effect on middle and upper class children.
D. Boys from single-parent homes perform less well in school.
Marliee Jones, former dean of admissions at MIT, resigned from her position in April 2007 after it came to light that she had fabricated her academic record and claimed to have academic degrees she did not have. This illustrates the overemphasis on qualifications such as college degrees in order to be hired for a job. This is known as:
The SAT was developed in order to provide children from public schools with a chance to demonstrate their fitness for college and to show they are as able as students from private high schools. It is therefore ironic that:
researchers now question how meritocratic the SAT is, because the SAT may test knowledge that is biased against certain groups
All of the following are among the best practices for effective teaching listed by Langlois and Zales except:
adopting strategies to encourage students to share compliments and insults
Which of the following is NOT a criticism that a Marxist theorist of education would make regarding how schools have socialized children to dominant cultural values?
Schools make students class conscious.
Which of the following is a functionalist explanation for the increased number of Americans with college degrees throughout the course of the twentieth century?
jobs have become more skilled and technologically advanced, and a more education workforce is necessary to fill these jobs.
Rosenthal and Jacobson's 1968 study of the Pygmalion effect provided strong evidence that teacher expectations matter. Which of the following actions by a teacher would NOT promote student achievement?
giving less-difficult material to learners they see as "especially promising"
Which of the following is NOT an argument against tracking in schools?
Tracking benefits children with less-advantaged backgrounds, but only if their parents can advocate on their behalf to get them into college-preparatory tracks.
According to Espenshade and Chung (2005), eliminating affirmative action programs would do which of the following?
decrease black and Hispanic admission acceptance rates by one-half to two-thirds
With regard to biological or genetic differences between people, sociologists have found that:
stigmatized minorities in all countries have lower IQ scores, lower educational attainment, and lower occupational status, indicating that social processes of stratification and stigmatization affect the life chances of these groups
A prominent hypothesis about the effect of family size on children's educational outcomes is the __________model
Studies show that _______ school students score highest on achievement tests, followed by ________ school students
Catholic; secular private and public
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