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Bacteria & Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
Terms in this set (22)
The 7 classic Gram + bacteria that cause disease in humans
-Spore-formers: Bacillus, Clostridium
-Non spore-formers: Corynebacterium, Listeria
Examples of gram -
ENTERICS - live in the GI tract:
-E. Coli -Bacteriodes (anaerobic)
What bacteria is the exception/not really gram + or -?
Why and what does it cause?
-NO cell wall
-Only a simple cell membrane
-Therefore-neither Gm+ or Gm-
Mycloplasma pneumoniae "walking pneumonia"
-F, dry, non-productive, hacking cough
-Tx of choice: Azithromycin, Doxy, or FQ
What is the difference between extotoxins and endotoxins? Give some examples of each
Exotoxins: proteins released by some Gm+ and some Gm- bacteria!:
o Neurotoxins: act on nerves paralysis i.e.-Tetanus, Botulinum
o Enterotoxins: act on GI tract diarrhea
o i.e.-Vibrio, E. Coli, Campylobacter, Shigella
o Pyrogenic: lead to rash, F, and toxic shock
o i.e.-Staph aureus, Strep pyogenes
Tissue evasive: allow bacteria to destroy tissues
Endotoxins: Lipid A
o Normal part of outer membrane that sheds off, NOT a protein
o Gm- bacteria only
bacteria in the BLOODSTREAM = ?
bacteremia systemic immune response to the infection (F, leukocytosis, tachycardia etc.)
sepsis hypotension and organ dysfunction
-Common, deadly response to both Gm+ and Gm- infections
-High mortality rate despite ICU and Abx tx
Major illness that may occur if step throat is not treated? What are the major manifestations of this?
Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF):
-Uncommon since advent of PCN
-MC in children ages 5-15 yrs old
-Myocarditis (heart inflammation)
-Subcutaneous nodules under the skin
-Rash (erythema marginatum)
Know it can cause major heart disease!
Inflammation of gingiva and oral mucosa?
Etiology of Herpetic gingivostomatitis?
Herpes viral infection-contagious
Where is the most common location for Herpetic Gingivostomatitis?
Gums, cheeks, palate, tongue, border b/w lip and skin
Can occur anywhere throughout oropharynx
Who is most likely to get Herpetic Gingivostomatitis?
Young children (<3 yrs old)
Typically primary exposure
Adult family member w/cold sore
What are the sx and PE findings of Herpetic Gingivostomatitis?
Fever (1-2 days before onset-lesions)
Perioral pinpoint vesicular lesions
Shallow ulcers (after vesicles rupture)
What is the diagnosis and treatment of Herpetic Gingivostomatitis?
Typically clinical but can perform Tzanck smear to confirm!
Spotanteous resolution in 1-2 weeks but can use topical lidocaine with caution for tx.
What is the etiology of Herpangina? When is it most frequently seen?
Group A Coxsackie viruses
Infants and children, summer season
What are the sx and PE findings of Herpangina?
Sudden onset of F w/ST, HA, anorexia
w/in 2 days small grey spots in oropharynx shallow ulcers
Vesicles/ulcers on posterior oropharynx-tonsillar pillars*, uvula, soft palate, tongue
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER THAT LESIONS ARE ON THE POSTERIOR OROPHARYNX!
Diagnosis and tx of Herpangina?
Spontaneously resolve w/in 5-7 days, +/-topicals
Etiology of hand foot and mouth? Who and when is it seen?
Group A Coxsackie Viruses
Children in daycare (<10 yrs old), summer and fall
Sx of HFM?
F, ST, malaise, anorexia, irritability, rash on hands, feet, mouth lesions
PE of HFM?
Painful, red, blister-like lesions on anterior tongue, gums, inside of cheek. REMEMBER THAT LESIONS ARE ON THE ANTERIOR TONGUE.
Red (non-itchy) rash on palms and soles
How would you make the diagnosis/tx for HFM?
Spontaneous resolution 7-10 days, +/-topical
When are you no longer contagious with HFM?
After the lesions in the mouth are gone. Lesions can remain on hands and feet without being contagious.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ENT Infections and Trauma
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