Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (58)
Rules discovered by reason, govern scientific forces such as magnetism.
People have the right to overthrow the government if it fails to live up to its citizens
Specific rights that no government can take away from an individual, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Many articles by the leading thinkers of the time
a belief or theory that opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response.
group of French economists claimed they would discover the natural laws of economy; first natural law was that agriculture and land define wealth opposed to gold and silver; second law was laissez-faire; rejected mercantilism; supply and demand
An economic system where the wealth of a nation is strictly regulated by the government
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Mostly located in France, is where wealthy individuals would share enlightenment ideals
Absolute rulers who tried to bring about change for the benefit of the people
Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. He believed people were bad and un rational form birth. Couldn't move ranks. Govt highest authority
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
believed government should have separation of powers and checks and balances
believed that the good of the community should be place above individual interests
exposed abuses of power in govt and church; defended the principle of free speech
focused on using natural laws for economic reform; rejected governmental regulation of the economy and instead urged the policy of laissez-faire
father of capitalism
supply on demand
When a government's expenditures exceed its revenues, causing or deepening a deficit. This excess spending needs to be financed through borrowing, likely from foreign governments.
An assembly of represeentatives of all three estates so that taxes could be approved; first of their kind in 175 years.
The Tennis Court Oath
Delegates of the Naitonal Assembly pleaged to stay at the Tennis Court and to stay until a constitution was made
On July 14, 1789, a mob of French people were looking for gunpowder and stormed this Paris Prison and killed the guards and prison commander. (freed 7 people)
Estates General - National Assembly - Nat'l Convention
Name of Legislator
An assembly of represeentatives of all three estates so that taxes could be approved; first of their kind in 175 years.
The third estate delegates renamed their section of the Estates-General this, which would pass laws for the french people.(Vote by heads)
During Radical Phase wanted republic, no more King.
Nobles(govt officials, courts, army officials)
Peasants, urban workers, middle class
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
This is the fancy name for the French Bill of Rights which was based on the ideas of Rousseau, creates everyone equal before the law, and allows the freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and Unlawful Arrest.
Constitution of 1791
This established France as a Limited Monarch and had seperation of powers (Montessaeu)
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety, A political body of the French Revolution that gained virtual dictatorial control over France during the Reign of Terror
Regin of Terror
This was the period in France in 1793-1794 when Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and "enemies of the Revolution" - they were all judged severely and most were executed.
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon;
French civil code established in the early 1800s; basis of many civil codes today and still remains France's civil code
King Louis XVI
(1754-1793) King of France from 1774 to 1792; he was unpopular for taxes that he imparted on his people, was king at the beginning of the French Revolution, was deposed by the National Convention and guillotined.
Queen of France at the time of the French Revolution. She was from Austria-Hungary. French people hated her because of her extravagant spending
French Revolution leader who began as a supporter of Enlightenment ideals but then lost those ideals when he became head of the Committee of Public Safety and created a "reign of terror" under which thousands of French people were put to death. He was eventually put to death in 1794.
(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.
What were some of the main revolutionary ideas espoused by Enlightenment thinkers? 8-10
1. The right to be happy
2. Religious freedom
3. Separation of church and state
4. science should be used to serve the general public
5. Freedom of speech
6. Treatment of prisoners
7. Parents and teachers should not beat kids/students
8. Pleasure is good
- Happiness -> we have the right and can be happy; with the government's help we can achieve this
- Separate Church and state
- Knowledge -> science serves to better society
- Reason -> critical reason can make life better
- Stop discrimination -> no longer okay to discriminate people because of their religion or way of life
- Teach children with education, don't beat them
- Prisons should be places for rehabilitation and where criminals serve their debt to society
- Privacy -> people can have privacy in their own homes
- Tolerance -> of others and especially of religion
Describe The Main viewpoints as well as similarities and differences between Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu and Rousseau.
- English Philosopher 1588 - 1679
- Wrote Leviathan - describing the state of nature where all individuals were naturally free
- As a result, everyone suffered from continued fear and danger of a violent death.
- Life of man was solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
- No laws in the state of nature and no one to enforce laws
- Only option was to create government.
- People agreed among themselves to lay down natural rights of equality and freedom and give absolute power to a sovereign. Could be a person or group.
- Hobbes liked a king for consistent exercise of authority.
- People had no right to revolt against a king.
- 1632 - 1704 English Philosopher
- Two Treatises of Government
- State of Nature - agreed with Hobbes, brutal
- Required a social contract to assure peace
- Natural right could not be taken away "inalienable" (impossible to surrender)
- Social Contract was an agreement between the people and the king
- People had the right (responsibility) to revolt if the king violated these natural rights
- Property was the most important of the natural rights
- Governments should "govern lightly"
- Favored a representative form of government
- 1689 - 1755 French noble
- The Spirit of the Laws - 1748
- State of Nature - individuals were so fearful of violence and war that it caused the timid to associate with others and seek to live in a society
- Then he "loses his sense of weakness, equality ceases, and then commences the state of war"
- No social contract, but the state of war lead humans to laws and government
- Believed in separation of powers
- Used in our constitution
Jean - Jacques Rousseau
- 1712 - 1778 - born in Geneva Switzerland
- 1762 - Social Contract Theory
- People are good and corrupted by society
- State of Nature - free, equal, peaceful, and happy
- Ownership of property caused inequality, murder, and war.
- Social Contract was not a willing agreement but the rich stole land and fooled common people into accepting them as rulers.
- "Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains"
- Believed in direct democracy, that the will of the people could not
decided by elected representatives.
- People will hold all political power
- "We the people" taken from Rousseau
- Believed religion divided and weakened the state.
- Favored a "civil religion" that accepted God, but concentrated on the sacredness of the social contract.
What is the link between coffee/cafes and the Enlightenment as well as the French Revolution?
- Coffee made for clearer thoughts as people would drink that instead of alcohol
-Cafes allowed for spread of enlightenment ideas
-French Revolution started in a cafe house
What economic ideas in general did Enlightenment thinkers support?
free trade- the flow of commerce in the market, government leaves companies alone equals fail or succeed
laissez- faire- let people have their own self- interest in mind to better company-freedom of thought
supply and demand- make enough to go around but not to much to put yourself- out of business-rationality
competition- good for greater society because it forces people to continue to work hard and progress
Describe the different ways that Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe?
During the Age of Enlightenment, the Dark Ages were overcome by the fast spread of a large number of new ideas, writings, philosophies, scientific discoveries and art. The spread of these ideas from the wealthy to the middle class was in large part due to the ability of the thinkers involved to produce printed materials. - People were able to read the Encyclopedia and many other widely printed written works
- Philosophers' ideas were often disguised as stories that became very popular
- Salons became popular and allowed scholars to exchange ideas and have discussions
Why did some of the new Enlightenment ideas threaten the old system?
- Wanted to make everyone equal which would decrease the kings power
- Challenged the church
- Scientific reason
-principles(freedom of press, freedom to over through govt, freedom of religion, press)
Why did a few European rulers embrace Enlightenment ideas and what were the goals of Enlightened despots?
Many philosophies, including Voltaire believed that the best form of government was a monarchy in which the ruler respected the people's rights. The philosophies tried to convince monarchs to rule justly. Some monarchs embraced the new ideas and made reformer that reflected the Enlightenment spirit. They became known as enlightened despots (Despot means absolute ruler). The enlightened despots supported the philosophies ideas. They also had no intention of giving up power. The changes they made were motivated by 2 desires: They wanted to make their countries stronger and their won rule more effective. The foremost despots where Fredrick II, Joseph II, and Catherine the Great.
Describe the three estates of French society and explain why each was upset w/conditions in 1789?
First Estate- 1-2% of population, paid no taxes, clergy, 10% of land, (Were targeted by philosphers)
Second Estate- 1-2% of population, paid no taxes, made up of nobles, owned land 25%, (Afraid of freedoms being taken i.e. taxes)
Third Estate- 95% of population, rural peasants, bourgeoise top of middle class, 65% of land, (paid all taxes)
What are the causes of the financial crisis in France in 1789?
-French funded american revolution
-extravagant spending by monarchs
Why did King Louis 16 decide to call the estates General in 1789? What was the outcome?
France was on the verge of bankruptcy. Out of control with riots over poor living conditions.
Outcome: Excepting the tennis court was accepted which put third estate with majority power.
Why is Bastille Day considered a French national holiday?
When the citizen challenged the government and it was a wake up call to King Louis 16. The storming of the bastille started the revolution.
Limited, constitutional monarchy
Republic(led by people without monarch)
Oligarchy(committee of public safety)
BIG IDEA ON TEST-out of order on test explain what order and why
Renaissance- questioned power, printing press, humanism(education, human reason)-Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation- doubted to church then question all knowledge used science- Scientific Revolution
scientific Revolution- social concepts, best way to live, human nature. Using scientific method to question thing.-Enlightenment
Enlightenment- Theory being put into practice(freedom, pursuit of happiness, declaration of independence(Locke) Locke said people should have the ability of to over through. Montesque 3 branches-American Revolution
American Revolution- Saw it could be done, French spent money to support americans, took american constitution.- French Revolution
Why is the 1st stage of the French rev considered Moderate stage, and what makes the revolution radical in second stage.
1st stage- Little killing and king is still alive
2nd stage- Killing exploded they kill the king and search for any doubters of the revolution.
How did Enlightenment ideas influence supporters of revolution?
The right to change government Locke.
The right to freedoms.
Not always listen government says think outside the box.
Enlightenment ideas made people question everything
- Coffee shops and salons allowed for a place for scholars to gather and share their ideas and later a meeting place for revolutionaries to plan attacks
- People believed that happiness was their right and that the government should help them attain this
- People believed that they had the right to overthrow their government if they were not being treated fairly
- The Enlightenment ideas of equality and freedom drastically influenced the French Revolution
List some of the central principles of the Declaration of the rights of Man.
All men deserve to be equal
Have the right to freedom
Liberty, property and security
Taxes were opposed on ability to pay.
What was the impact/result of the women march on Versalles.
Brought the King and Queen to paris.
Made them do something about the revolution.
List the main reforms enacted by the Constitution of 1791?
-seperation of power
Absolute monarchy replaced by limited monarchy
- Limited monarchy (instead of absolute)
- Legislature -> makes laws, collects taxes, makes decisions regarding war and peace
- Members of legislature are elected by tax paying men over the age of 25
- Abolished provincial courts (courts established by the king)
- Reformed laws
How did people outside of France react to the revolution as it developed?
People outside of France were disgusted with the revolution and wanted to take action and stop the revolution because they wanted Loui 16 in power. France also trying to expand and make change o other countries. Enlightenment thinkers all over Europe supported the National Assembly's reforms. However, European rulers increased border controls to combat the spread of France's rebellious ideas. All rulers turned on France because their feared that Enlightenment ideas would spread. The revolution became more violent when assassinations were planned for those who spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe.
What might have led people to the violence of the radical stage of the revolution?
Cause is the people wanted change. No more king and were fed up with anyone wanted a king. They wanted change fast so they thought killing was the way for change to come about. Robspierre thought people could not achieve liberty without killing the criminals.
BIG IDEA After 10 years of revolution, how had France changed? List the main Political and social reforms the occurred by 1799
New social power
Church under state control
France changed flag
- Social system no longer had such distinct classes
- Overthrew monarchy
- Limited power of the Church (Church under state)
- All people are now called citizens
- Equality amongst all males
- People now dressed simply (no longer extravagant)
- Changed their flag (red white blue)
- Abolished slavery
- Nationalism developed -> people felt loyal to their country France
- Education improved -> mandatory elementary education
What role did Maximilien Robespierre play in the French Revolution? Why was he called both a dedicated revolutionary and a tyrant?
He was the leader of the committee of public safety and was called the incorruptible because of his selfless dedication. He thought the only way that the revolution would happen was through terror which is why other countries saw him as a tyrant.
Why did the people of France support Napoleon? What were the positives as well as drawback of his rule?
The people of France supported Napoleon because he had many ideas liked by the people.
-Peasants got right to land
-Middle class like Napoleons economic reforms and order
-Napoleon also opened jobs to all
-After many years of no stability the people looked for one leader who could take charge of the city.
Napoleon looked for war and sacrificed many of his men(grand army)
He pushed nationalism which made many countries see France as a oppressor.
Put France back into a monarchy
Women lost privileges
Structure to the government
Established bank which controlled the economy
- He made peace with the Catholic Church (Concordant of 1801)
- He gave peasants back their land
- He gave jobs to many people based on a qualification scale
- He was an extremely successful army general and conquered a lot of land for France
- He created a National Bank that deceased lots of prices
- Napoleon gave the people order and results that they could see
The Napoleonic Code was directly used and also adapted to be used in places all over Europe.
How did Napoleon and France come to dominate most of Europe? What eventually led to his downfall of power?
Napoleon led to dominate the world through conquest, he had a strong army which allowed him to conquer other countries. Also Napoleon used allies to his benefit by putting family members in power.
His downfall came on the heels of his grand army loss in Russia where he led his army of 600,000 people into Russia but the Russians fled and burn all resources forcing Napoleon to turn around and lose many troops. When he got back he was forced to abdicate from the throne and he was forced to exile on a island in the Mediterranean.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
World War II Effects
Frankenstein Study Guide
State and Individual Test (haha wtf is this even o…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Enlightenment and French Revolution
Enlightenment and French Revolution
World History Unit 6
World History Chapter 12
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
APUSH REV VOCAB