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O'Hall AP Psychology
Terms in this set (62)
According to Piaget, the process by which we modify our schemas to fit new information
age of viability
the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth
a fatal degenerative disease in which brain neurons progressively die, causing loss of memory, reasoning, emotion, control of bodily functions, then death
the belief that all things are living
According to Piaget, the process in which we fit new information into our existing schemas
the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
authoritarian style of parenting
parents set rigid rules, enforce strict punishments, and rarely listen to their child's point of view
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Erikson's second stage, in which a child aged 2 - 3 years must begin to regulate some behavior, taking some personal responsibility for feeding, dressing and bathing. The child will develop a sense of self-sufficiency or a sense of personal shame and self-doubt depending on whether his efforts are met with approval or dissatisfaction.
According to Piaget, the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects
the head-to-foot direction of motor development
transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving
occur when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods
combines cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to correct for cohort effect
concrete operational period
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development. Lasting from age 7 - 11, children master the ability to perform operations - internal transformations, manipulations, and reorganizations of mental structures - as they pertain to images of tangible objects and actual events.
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance
Stages 3 and 4 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning. Children see rules as necessary for maintaining social order; they internalize them to be considered virtuous and to win approval from authority figures.
comparing groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time
involves the ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills; generally improves with age
an abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits, including memory impairment
the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death
indicate the typical (median) age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities
thinking that is characterized by a limited ability to share another person's viewpoint
the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month
the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth
basic reasoning ability, memory capacity, and speed of information processing; gradually diminishes with aging
formal operational period
Piaget's final stage of cognitive development. Beginning around 11 years, children can apply mental operations to abstract concepts and become more systematic in problem-solving.
expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex
widely held beliefs about females' and males' abilities, personality traits, and social behavior
generativity vs. stagnation
Erikson's seventh stage. From age 40 - 65, adults need to express their caring about future generations by guiding/mentoring others or producing creative work that enriches the lives of others. Failing this, people become stagnant and preoccupied with their own needs and comforts.
the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception
identity vs. role confusion
Erikson's fifth stage. From age 12 - 20, the major task is to build a consistent identity, a unified sense of self. Failure of teens to achieve a sense of identity results in role confusion and uncertainty about the future.
industry vs. inferiority
Erikson's fourth stage, in which a child from age 6 through puberty extends social functioning beyond the family. The child must learn that productivity is valued in this sphere to achieve a sense of competence or he will develop a sense of inferiority.
initiative vs. guilt
Erikson's third stage, in which a child aged 3 - 6 years begin to take initiative that conflicts with parental wishes. Over-controlling parents may instill feelings of guilt and damage self-esteem. Supportive parents encourage emerging independence while providing appropriate controls.
integrity vs. despair
Erikson's eighth and last stage. From age 65 to death, people who look back on their lives with satisfaction develop a sense of wholeness and integrity. Those in despair look back with regret and disappointment in the lives they have led.
intimacy vs. isolation
Eriskon's sixth stage. From age 21 - 40, the major task is to achieve intimacy (deeply caring about others and having meaningful experiences with them). Otherwise, we experience isolation, feeling alone and uncared for in life
the inability to envision reversing an action
observing one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time
development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint
the first occurrence of menstruation
the end of menstrual cycles and the loss of fertility
the progression of musculature coordination required for physical activities
develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible
permissive style of parenting
parents set few rules, make minimal demands, and allow their children to reach their own conclusions
post conventional level
Stages 5 and 6 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning. Society's rules are considered fallible rather than absolute; right and wrong is determined by abstract ethical principles that emphasize equity and justice.
Stages 1 and 2 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning. Children think about moral questions in terms of external authority; acts are wrong because they are punished or right because they are rewarded.
extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing the nine months of pregnancy
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development. Lasting from age 2 - 7, children gradually improve in their use of mental images and symbolic thought, but still face shortcomings in their performance of mental operations.
primary sex characteristics
the physical structures necessary for reproduction
the center-outward direction of motor development
Erikson's theory that individuals pass through eight developmental stages, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved
the stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, which marks the beginning of adolescence
the two-year span preceding puberty during which the changes leading to physical and sexual maturity take place
secondary sex characteristics
physical features that distinguish one sex from the other but that are not essential for reproduction
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development. Lasting from birth to age 2, dominated at the beginning by innate reflexes but by the end, the child acquires object permanence and can use mental symbols to represent objects.
emotional distress seen mainly in infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment
the acquisition of the norms and behaviors expected of people in a particular society
the first occurrence of ejaculation
a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established
characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
trust vs. mistrust
Erikson's first stage, in which a totally dependent infant will develop an optimistic, trusting attitude toward the world depending on whether his biological needs are adequately met by his caregivers and sound attachments formed
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
the gap between what a learner can accomplish alone and what he or she can achieve with guidance from more skilled partners
a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
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