Biology Chapter 12
Terms in this set (68)
What British scientist was trying to see how certain types of bacteria produced a serious lung disease known as pneumonia
Smooth Colonies on Culture Plates
Where did the disease-causing grow on?
Where did the harmless strain produce colonies on?
What is it called when one strain of bacteria (the harmless strain) changes permanently into another (the disease-causing strain)
What scientist repeated Griffith's work to determine which molecule was important for transformation
When DNA was destroyed, transformation did not occur and it was concluded that DNA was the _____ factor.
Nucleic acid DNA
Avery and other scientists discovered that what stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next
Alfred Hershey, Martha Chase
What two scientists studied viruses- non-living particles smaller than a cell that can infect living organisms
A virus that infects bacteria is known as what?
A DNA or RNA core and a protein coat
What are Bacteriophages composed of?
The generic material of the Bacteriophage was DNA, not protein.
What did Hershey and Chase conclude from their experiment?
What is DNA made up of?
This is a monomer of nucleic acids made up of a five-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Adenine and Guanine
These two bases are purines and make up a phosphate group
Cytosine and Thymine
These two bases are pyrimidine's and make up deoxyribose
Sugar and Phosphate
The backbone of a DNA chain is formed by ___ and ____ groups of each nucleotide
Who used x-ray diffraction to get information about the structure of DNA
Watson's and Crick model of DNA was a ___ ____, in which two strands were wound around each other
Watson and Crick discovered that hydrogen bonds can form only between certain base pairs- adenine and Thymine, guanine and cytokine. What is this principal called?
In prokaryotic cells, DNA is located where?
Most ______ have a single DNA molecule containing nearly all of the cell's genetic information.
Messenger RNA, Ribosomal RNA, and Transfer RNA
What are the three main types of DNA?
Eukaryotic chromosomes contain DNA and protein, tightly packed together to form what?
Chromatin consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins called what?
DNA and Histone molecules form what?
Each strand of the DNA double helix has all the information needed to reconstruct the other half by the mechanism of what?
In prokaryotes, DNA replication begins in how many points
In Eukaryotic chromosomes, DNA replication occurs in how many points
The sites where separation and replication occur are called what?
Before a cell divides, it duplicates its DNA in a process called what?
True or False, replication ensures that each resulting cell will have a complete set of DNA
During what, the DNA molecule separates into two strands, then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing. Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template for a new strand.
DNA replication is carried out by what that "unzip" a molecule of DNA
The principle enzyme involved in DNA replication is what?
DNA polymerase joins individual ____ to produce a DNA molecule and then "proofreads" each new DNA strand
What are coded DNA instructions that control the production of protein
What contains coded information for making proteins
5- carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
RNA consists of a long chain nucleotides and they are made up of what?
What carries copies of instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins
Ribosomes are made up of proteins and what?
During protein construction, what transfers each amino acid to the ribosomes
RNA molecules are produced by copying part of a nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complementary sequencing RNA. This is called what?
Transcription requires what enzyme?
RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands
During transcription, what happens?
RNA polymerase binds only to regions of DNA known as what?
These are signals in DNA that indicate to the enzyme where to bind to make RNA
The DNA of eukaryotic genes contains sequences of nucleotides called what, that are not involved in coding for proteins
The DNA sequences that code for proteins are called what?
A _____ consists of three consecutive nucleotides on mRNA that specify a particular amino acid.
This is the term that is used for decoding of an mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
Translation takes place on what?
During translation, the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce what?
These are changes in the genetic material?
Mutations that produce changes in the single gene are known as what?
Mutations that produce changes in whole chromosomes are known as what?
Gene mutations involving a change in one or a few nucleotides are known as what because they occur at a single point in the DNA sequence
Frame shift mutations
The addition or deletion of a nucleotide causing a shift in the grouping of codon is called what?
This usually affects no more than a single amino acid
In what does an extra base get inserted into a base sequence
In what does the loss of a single base get deleted and the reading frame is shifted
What involves the loss of all or part of a chromosome
This produces extra copies of parts of a chromosome
This reverses the direction of parts of chromosomes
This occurs when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
This is the condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
Series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo
To tell the cells of the body how they should differentiate as the body grows
What is the function of the Hox genes in humans?