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Largest desert in the world; covers most of North Africa

Nile River

Longest river in the world; formed by the Blue and White Nile


Finely ground fertile soil that is good for growing crops.

Suez Canal

Narrow waterway built by the French that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea


wet, fertile area in a desert where a natural spring or well provides water

Atlas Mountains

mountain range on the northwestern side of the Sahara near the Mediterranean coast. (13,600 ft.)

Aswan High Dam

controls flooding in the Nile River

Mediterranean climate

Winters are mild and moist, summer are dry and hot; Northern coast of Egypt has this.

Desert climate

covers most of the region; temperatures range from mild to hot

Steppe climate

recieve slightly more rain than desert; shrubs and trees grow along rivers and streams

Important resources

Libya- oil, agriculture. Egypt-oil, Tunisia- agriculture. Algeria- oil, agriculture. Morocco- fertilizers


city in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great in 332 BC; important seaport, trading and learning center


ethnic groupp who are native to North Africa and speak Berber language


Greek descent who ruled ancient Egypt for 20 years


huge monuments built as tombs, or burial places for pharaohs.

Great Pyramid

one of the largest pyramids; contains 2.3 millions blocks of stone


writing system developed by Egyptians; used pictures and symbols that stood for ideas or words

Alexander the Great

Macedonian king who captured and founded many cities; (also discovered bananas)

King Tut

19-year old who ruled Egypt; died mysteriously


major religion in North Africa


made from wheat and looks like small pellets of pasta, usually steamed over boiling water or spup


made with fava beans mashed with olive oil, salt, pepper, garlic, lemons; served with hard-boiled eggs and bread.


month of the Muslim calendar; abstain from food and drink during the day

Naguib Mahfouz

bcame the first Arab writer to win Nobel Prize for Literature


capitol of Egypt; largest urban area in North Africa


Western Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco



Free port

city in which almost no taxes are placed on goods sold there


someone who rules a country with complete power


dictator who supported many acts of violence against Israel and its neighbors.

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