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30 terms

Holt McDougal World Geography Ch. 20 North Africa

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Sahara
Largest desert in the world; covers most of North Africa
Nile River
Longest river in the world; formed by the Blue and White Nile
silt
Finely ground fertile soil that is good for growing crops.
Suez Canal
Narrow waterway built by the French that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea
oasis
wet, fertile area in a desert where a natural spring or well provides water
Atlas Mountains
mountain range on the northwestern side of the Sahara near the Mediterranean coast. (13,600 ft.)
Aswan High Dam
controls flooding in the Nile River
Mediterranean climate
Winters are mild and moist, summer are dry and hot; Northern coast of Egypt has this.
Desert climate
covers most of the region; temperatures range from mild to hot
Steppe climate
recieve slightly more rain than desert; shrubs and trees grow along rivers and streams
Important resources
Libya- oil, agriculture. Egypt-oil, Tunisia- agriculture. Algeria- oil, agriculture. Morocco- fertilizers
Alexandria
city in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great in 332 BC; important seaport, trading and learning center
Berbers
ethnic groupp who are native to North Africa and speak Berber language
Cleopatra
Greek descent who ruled ancient Egypt for 20 years
Pyramids
huge monuments built as tombs, or burial places for pharaohs.
Great Pyramid
one of the largest pyramids; contains 2.3 millions blocks of stone
Hieroglyphics
writing system developed by Egyptians; used pictures and symbols that stood for ideas or words
Alexander the Great
Macedonian king who captured and founded many cities; (also discovered bananas)
King Tut
19-year old who ruled Egypt; died mysteriously
Islam
major religion in North Africa
Couscous
made from wheat and looks like small pellets of pasta, usually steamed over boiling water or spup
Fuul
made with fava beans mashed with olive oil, salt, pepper, garlic, lemons; served with hard-boiled eggs and bread.
Ramadan
month of the Muslim calendar; abstain from food and drink during the day
Naguib Mahfouz
bcame the first Arab writer to win Nobel Prize for Literature
Cairo
capitol of Egypt; largest urban area in North Africa
Maghreb
Western Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco
Souk
marketplaces
Free port
city in which almost no taxes are placed on goods sold there
Dictator
someone who rules a country with complete power
Gadhafi
dictator who supported many acts of violence against Israel and its neighbors.