A&P Pre-Lab Quiz Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive

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The digestive system
eliminates undigested food, provides the body with nutrients and water
Circle the correct term Digestion/Absorption occurs when small molecules pass through epithelial cells into the blood for distribution to the body cells.
Absorption
The ____ abuts the lumen of the alimentary canal and consists of epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae.
Mucosa
Circle the correct term. Approximately 25 cm long, the esophagus/alimentary canal conducts food from the pharynx to the stomach.
esophagus
Wavelike contractions of the digestive tract that propel food along are called
peristalsis
the ________ is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity and is hidden by the liver and diaphragm
stomach
Circle True or False. Nearly all nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestine.
True
Circle the correct term. The ascending colon/descending colon traverses down the left side of the abdominal cavity and becomes the sigmoid colon.
descending colon
A tooth consists of two major regions, the crown and the
root
Located inferior to the diaphragm, the ________ is the largest gland in the body, with four lobes.
Liver
Circle the correct term. In its excretory role, the urinary system is primarily concerned with the removal of carbon-containing/nitrogenous wastes from the body
Nitrogenous wastes.
The _______ perform(s) the excretory and homeostatic functions of the urinary system.
kidney
Circle the correct term. The cortex/medulla of the kidney is segregated into triangular regions with a striped appearance.
Medullary region.
Circle the correct term. As the renal artery approaches a kidney, it is divided into branches known as the segmental arteries/afferent arterioles.
segmental arteries
What do we call the anatomical units responsible for the formation of urine?
nephrons
This knot of coiled capillaries, found in the kidneys, forms the filtrate. It is the
glomerulus
The section of the renal tubule closest to the glomerular capsule is the
proximal convoluted tubule
Circle the correct term. The afferent/efferent arteriole drains the glomerular capillary bed.
efferent
Circle True or False. During tubular reabsorption, components of the filtrate move from the bloodstream into the tubule.
False
Circle the correct term. The internal/external urethral sphincter consists of skeletal muscle and is voluntarily controlled.
external
Normal urine is pale yellow to amber in color due to the presense of
urochrome
Circle the correct term. The average pH value of urine is 6.0/11.0
6.0
Circle True or False. Glucose can usually be found in all normal urine.
False
______, like other blood proteins, is/are too large to pass through the glomerular filtration membrane and is/are normally not found in urine.
Albumin
Circle the correct term. Hematuria/Ketonuria, the appearance of red blood cells in the urine, almost always indicates pathology of the urinary system.
Hematuria
The appearance of bile pigments in the urine, a condition known as _______, can be an indication of liver disease.
bilirubinuria
Circle the correct term. Casts/Calculi are hardened cell fragments formed in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts and flushed out of the urinary tract.
Casts
When determining the presence of inorganic constituents such as sulfates, phosphates, and chlorides, you will be looking for the "formation of a precipitate" what is a precipitate?
the crystallization of the solute in urine when it is concentrated. (approximate?)
The essential organs of reproduction are the _____________, which produce the germ cells.
gonads
Circle the correct term. The paired oval testes lie in the scrotum/prostate outside the abdominopelvic cavity, where they are kept slightly cooler than body temperature
scrotum
After sperm are produced, they enter the first part of the duct system, the
epididymis
The prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands produce _________, the liquid medium in which sperm leaves the body.
seminal fluid
Circle the correct term. The interstitial cells/seminiferous tubules produce testosterone, the hormonal product of the testis.
interstitial cells
The endocrine products of the ovaries are estrogen and
progesterone
Circle the correct term. The labia majora/clitoris are/is homologous to the penis
clitoris
The _____ is pear-shaped organ that houses the embryo fetus during its development
uterus
Human gametes contain ______ chromosomes
23
The end product of meiosis is
four haploid daughter cells
Circle the correct term. A grouping of four chromatids, known as dyad/tetrad, occurs only during mitoses/meiosis
tetrad/meiosis
_____ cells extend inward from the periphary of the seminiferous tubule and provide nourishment to the spermatids as they begin their transformation into sperm.
sustenticular cell
Circle the correct term. The acrosome/midpiece of the sperm contains enzymes involved in the penetration of the egg
acrosome
Circle the correct term. Within each ovary, the immature ovum develops in a saclike structure called a corpus/folicle
follicle
As the primordial follicle rows and its epithelium changes from squamous to cuboidal cells it becomes _____ and begins to produce estrogens
primary follicle
True or false: A sudden release of luteinizing hormone by the anterior pituitary triggers ovulation
True
Circle the correct term. The fertilized egg, or zygote/embryo appears as a single cell surrounded by fertilization membrane and a jellylike membrane.
zygote
The uniting of the egg and sperm nuclei is known as
fertilization
Circle True or False. Cleavage is a series of mitotic divisions without any intervening growth periods that results in a multicellular embryonic body.
True
Circle the correct term. As the results of gastrulation, a three/four-layered embryo forms, with each layer corresponding to a primary germ layer.
three layer
The _______ gives rise to the dermis of the skin and the nervous system.
ectoderm
By the ninth week of development the embryo is referred to as a _________
fetus
Circle True or False. The placenta is composed solely of embryonic membranes
False
Circle the correct term. The allantois/amnion encases the young embryo body in a fluid-filled chamber that acts to protect the developing embryo against trauma.
amnion
What is the function of the placenta
all exchanges to the embryo happen through the placenta