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The digestive system

eliminates undigested food, provides the body with nutrients and water

Circle the correct term Digestion/Absorption occurs when small molecules pass through epithelial cells into the blood for distribution to the body cells.


The ____ abuts the lumen of the alimentary canal and consists of epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae.


Circle the correct term. Approximately 25 cm long, the esophagus/alimentary canal conducts food from the pharynx to the stomach.


Wavelike contractions of the digestive tract that propel food along are called


the ________ is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity and is hidden by the liver and diaphragm


Circle True or False. Nearly all nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestine.


Circle the correct term. The ascending colon/descending colon traverses down the left side of the abdominal cavity and becomes the sigmoid colon.

descending colon

A tooth consists of two major regions, the crown and the


Located inferior to the diaphragm, the ________ is the largest gland in the body, with four lobes.


Circle the correct term. In its excretory role, the urinary system is primarily concerned with the removal of carbon-containing/nitrogenous wastes from the body

Nitrogenous wastes.

The _______ perform(s) the excretory and homeostatic functions of the urinary system.


Circle the correct term. The cortex/medulla of the kidney is segregated into triangular regions with a striped appearance.

Medullary region.

Circle the correct term. As the renal artery approaches a kidney, it is divided into branches known as the segmental arteries/afferent arterioles.

segmental arteries

What do we call the anatomical units responsible for the formation of urine?


This knot of coiled capillaries, found in the kidneys, forms the filtrate. It is the


The section of the renal tubule closest to the glomerular capsule is the

proximal convoluted tubule

Circle the correct term. The afferent/efferent arteriole drains the glomerular capillary bed.


Circle True or False. During tubular reabsorption, components of the filtrate move from the bloodstream into the tubule.


Circle the correct term. The internal/external urethral sphincter consists of skeletal muscle and is voluntarily controlled.


Normal urine is pale yellow to amber in color due to the presense of


Circle the correct term. The average pH value of urine is 6.0/11.0


Circle True or False. Glucose can usually be found in all normal urine.


______, like other blood proteins, is/are too large to pass through the glomerular filtration membrane and is/are normally not found in urine.


Circle the correct term. Hematuria/Ketonuria, the appearance of red blood cells in the urine, almost always indicates pathology of the urinary system.


The appearance of bile pigments in the urine, a condition known as _______, can be an indication of liver disease.


Circle the correct term. Casts/Calculi are hardened cell fragments formed in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts and flushed out of the urinary tract.


When determining the presence of inorganic constituents such as sulfates, phosphates, and chlorides, you will be looking for the "formation of a precipitate" what is a precipitate?

the crystallization of the solute in urine when it is concentrated. (approximate?)

The essential organs of reproduction are the _____________, which produce the germ cells.


Circle the correct term. The paired oval testes lie in the scrotum/prostate outside the abdominopelvic cavity, where they are kept slightly cooler than body temperature


After sperm are produced, they enter the first part of the duct system, the


The prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands produce _________, the liquid medium in which sperm leaves the body.

seminal fluid

Circle the correct term. The interstitial cells/seminiferous tubules produce testosterone, the hormonal product of the testis.

interstitial cells

The endocrine products of the ovaries are estrogen and


Circle the correct term. The labia majora/clitoris are/is homologous to the penis


The _____ is pear-shaped organ that houses the embryo fetus during its development


Human gametes contain ______ chromosomes


The end product of meiosis is

four haploid daughter cells

Circle the correct term. A grouping of four chromatids, known as dyad/tetrad, occurs only during mitoses/meiosis


_____ cells extend inward from the periphary of the seminiferous tubule and provide nourishment to the spermatids as they begin their transformation into sperm.

sustenticular cell

Circle the correct term. The acrosome/midpiece of the sperm contains enzymes involved in the penetration of the egg


Circle the correct term. Within each ovary, the immature ovum develops in a saclike structure called a corpus/folicle


As the primordial follicle rows and its epithelium changes from squamous to cuboidal cells it becomes _____ and begins to produce estrogens

primary follicle

True or false: A sudden release of luteinizing hormone by the anterior pituitary triggers ovulation


Circle the correct term. The fertilized egg, or zygote/embryo appears as a single cell surrounded by fertilization membrane and a jellylike membrane.


The uniting of the egg and sperm nuclei is known as


Circle True or False. Cleavage is a series of mitotic divisions without any intervening growth periods that results in a multicellular embryonic body.


Circle the correct term. As the results of gastrulation, a three/four-layered embryo forms, with each layer corresponding to a primary germ layer.

three layer

The _______ gives rise to the dermis of the skin and the nervous system.


By the ninth week of development the embryo is referred to as a _________


Circle True or False. The placenta is composed solely of embryonic membranes


Circle the correct term. The allantois/amnion encases the young embryo body in a fluid-filled chamber that acts to protect the developing embryo against trauma.


What is the function of the placenta

all exchanges to the embryo happen through the placenta

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