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RNA Viruses From Unit Three of Medical Microbiology 095

Polio (Family & Class)

Picornaviridae, Class IV

Polio (Genus)


Polio (Shape)

Naked Icosahedral

Polio (Three Types)

A: Most Devastating
B: Least Important, Except in India
C: Emerging

Polio (History Recognition)

About 1840

Polio (Epidemics)

1905- Norway, Sweden

Polio (Pandemics)


Polio (20th Century)

Better Hygiene and Sanitation Less Prevalent

Polio (1938 Foundation Founded)

March of Dimes, National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis Founded by Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Polio (Vaccine 1952)

Salk, Formalin-Inactivated, Injected

Polio (Vaccine 1960)

Sabin, Oral Vaccine, Live Attenuated, Used Until 2000 in US, Still Used Globally

Polio (Vaccine 1986)

Juiced Up Version of Salk Vaccine

Salk Polio Vaccine Funded By?

March of Dimes

Polio (Transmission)

Direct Contact

Polio (Incubation)

One to Two Weeks

Polio (Virus Shed)

In Feces For Two to Six Weeks After Infection

Polio and Fecal Oral Route

A Problem in Areas of Poor Sanitation

Polio (Symptoms (3 Types))

90% Asymptomatic
9% Fever, Malaise, Sore Throat, Headache, Vomiting,
1% Paralysis

Polio (Paralysis Symptoms)

Spinal Poliomyelitis
Bulbar Poliomyelitis
Late Postpolio Muscle Atrophy

Polio (Treatment)

Not Treatment, Pain Relievers (Analgesics), Quality of Life

Polio (Prevention)

Vaccinate, Eradicated From North and South America

Influenze (Three Types)

Influenza A
Influenza B
Influenza C

Influenza Structure



Keeps Flu Viruses From Sticking to One Another
9 Types


Attaches Virus to Host Cell
16 Types

Influenza (Structure)

Enveloped Icosahedral

Ratio of Peplomers (H:A)


Influenza A (Pandemics (2))

H1N1 Spanish Flu (1918-1919)
H5N1 Bird Flu

Antigenic Shift

Hemagluttinin Changes
Hemagluttinin and Neurminidase Change

Influenza (At Risk)

Infants, Elderly, People With Compromised Immune Systems

Influenza (Transmission (2))

Air Droplets Coughing Sneezing, Fomites

Influenza (Symptoms (7))

High Fever
Muscle Pain (Myalgia)
Non-Productive Cough
Sore Throat
Nasal Inflammation (Rhinitis)

Influenza (Treatment (2))

Severe: Tamiflu, Relenza (Release Inhibitors)
Treat Symptoms and Rest

Influenza (Prevention (2))

Personal Hygiene

Influenza Vaccine

Changes Every Year
Usually Two A Strains One B Strain
Injected or Nasal Spray

Common Cold (Rhinovirus Family)


Rhinovirus (Structure)

Naked Icosahedral

Rhino Virus (Upper Respiratory Tract)

Because it Prefers Cold Temperatures

Rhinitis (Transmission)

Most Mucus Membranes
Direct Route, or Fomite

Rhinitis (Symptoms)

Inflammation of the Nose
Sneezing, Stuffy Feeling, Swelling, Sore Throat

Rhinitis (Secondary Bacterial Infections (5))

Bronchitis, Laryngitis, Otitis Media, Sinusitis, Tracheitis, Discoloration of Excudate

Rhinitis (Treatment)

Symptoms Only
Rest, Fluids, No Antipyretics (Fever Reducers)

Rhinitis (Prevention)

Personal Hygiene

Rabies (Family & Class)

Rhabdoviridae, Class V

Rabies (Genus)


Rabies (Fatal)

Without Treatment

Rabies (Transmission (3))

Infected Animals: Bats, Raccoons, Skunks
Caves, Corneal Transplants

Rabies (Symptoms (2-8 Weeks))

Malaise, Fever, GI, Headache, Pain, Itching, Tingling, Hot and Cold At Same Time, Sore Throat

Rabies (Symptoms (Later))

Furious Vs. Dumb
They Both Lead To Coma and Death

Rabies (Treatment (Before Hospital))

Wash Out: Use Peroxide or Alcohol Call 911

Rabies (Treatment (At ER))

Vaccine, and HRIG Human Rabies Immune Globulin Washed into Site

Rabies Vaccine (Given # of Days)

1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 60

Rabies (Prevention)

Pets are Monitored, Vacation is Put in Baited Food

HIV (Name)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HIV (Genus)


AIDS (Name)

A, Acquired I, Immuno- D, -Deficiency S, Syndrome


A Group of Symptoms That Are Suggestive of a Particular Condition

AIDS (# of Symptoms)


Number of People Infected With HIV

37 Million

AIDS (Definition)

Less Then 200 CD4 T-Cells/Micro Liter of Blood. Less Then 14% of Total Lymphocytes

Number of HIV Cases In U.S.

1.1 Million

Face of AIDS

Female, Non-White, Poor, Under Educated, Rural

HIV (Transmission)

Sex, Blood Transfusion

HIV Infection

CD4 T Cells Drop Below 500

HIV Seroconversion

The B Cells Mount Effort to Destroy HIV, Never Get CD4 T Back Above 1000

HIV Progression of Symptoms

Seen When CD4 T Drop Below 500

HIV Stage Three Symptoms

Chronic Fever, Chronic Diarrhea, Chronic Fatigue, Swollen Lymph Nodes, Opportunistic Infections

HIV (Drugs)

Three to Five Drug Cocktail


Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Nucleoside Analogs (Nukes)

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

Non-Nucleoside Analogs

Non Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

PI's (Drug)

Protease Inhibitors

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