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third century crisis

in the third century A.D. the Roman military was a mess; the Roman soldiers in general became less disciplined and loyal; they gave their allegiance to Rome but not to their commanders who fought among themselves for the throne


in A.D. 284, he was a strong-willed army leader and became the new emperor; he ruled with an iron fist and severely limited personal freedoms; he restored order to the empire and increased its strength; he doubled the size of the Roman army and sought to control inflation by setting fixed prices for goods; he claimed descent from the ancient Roman gods and created elaborate ceremonies to present himself in a godlike aura; he divided the empire into the Greek speaking East and the Latin speaking West and he took the eastern half for himself and a co-ruler for the west; he retired in A.D. 305 and his plans for orderly succession failed


he gained control of the western part of the empire in A.D. 312 and continued many of the social and economic policies of Diocletian; in 324 he secured control of the east; in 330 he moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium


the city of Constantine in Rome

Germanic Invasions

the Germanic people pushed into Rome to escape the Huns; they kept moving through Roman provinces of Gaul, Spain, and North Africa; the western army was unable to field an army to stop them; 410 hordes of Germans overran Rome and plundered it for 3 days


in 444 the Huns united for the first time under this person; he terrorized both halves of the empire; in the east his armies attacked and plundered 70 cities; after his death in 453, the Germanic invasions continued

Romulus Augustulus

he was the last Roman emperor; he was 14 years old and was removed by German forces in 476

Byzantine Empire

the eastern half of the empire came to be called, Byzantine Empire; it not only survived but flourished; it preserved the great heritage of Greek and Roman culture for another 1000 years; the empire endured until 1453 when it fell to the Ottoman Turks

Greco-Roman culture

it is the mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures produced a new culture

classical civilization

Classical civilization is also called Greco-Roman culture

Roman arts

Roman art and literature came to convey the Roman ideals of strength, permanence, and solidity; they created realistic portraits in stone; much Roman art was practical in purpose, intended for public education; they excelled in the art of painting


the best examples of Roman painting are found in this town and it dates as early as the second century B.C.


it is the philosophy of the Greek teacher Zeno, who was especially influential; it encouraged virtue, duty, moderation, and endurance


he was a poet that spent 10 years writing the most famous work of Latin literature, the Aeneid, the epic of legendary Aeneas; he modeled the Aeneid which was written in praise of Rome and Roman virtues after the Greek epics of Homer


he was a poet that wrote light, witty poetry for enjoyment; in Amores, he relates that he can only compose when he is in love


another Roman historian that is notable among ancient historians because he presented his facts accurately; he was also concerned about the Romans' lack of morality; in his Annals and Histories he wrote about the good and bad of imperial Rome and he shows his disgust with the actions of the Emperor Nero who many considered one of Rome's cruelest rulers

Romance languages

Latin was adopted by different peoples and developed into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian and these languages are called romance languages because of their common Roman heritage

Roman law

early Roman law dealt with strengthening the rights of Roman citizens; romans believed that law should be fair and apply equally to all people, rich and poor; judges began to recognize certain standards of justice and these standards were influenced largely by the teachings of Stoic philosophers and were based on common sense and practical ideas

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