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Arts and Humanities
TExES 154 ESL Supplemental Domain II
This information was taken from the Content Review Manual for The Texas Examinations of Educator Standards (TExES). Field 154: English as a Second Language Supplemental. Region VIII
Terms in this set (81)
Domain II Cognitive
Instruction, content learning, academic, achievement and assessment, and teaching methods.
METHODS. The ESL teacher understands ESL teaching methods and uses this knowledge to plan and implement effective developmentally appropriate instruction. The beginning teacher knows TEKS (especially English Language Arts and Reading curriculum), effective instructional methods, how to integrate technological tools and resources into instruction, applies this knowledge in classroom management and teaching strategies.
COMMUNICATION. The ESL teacher understands how to promote students communicative language development in English. The beginning teacher knows TEKS, understands the role of the linguistic environment and conversational support in L2 development, applies knowledge and understands interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading and writing, applies knowledge of ffective strategies, individual differences and how to provide feedback.
LITERACY. The ESL teacher understands how to promote students' literacy development in English. The beginning teacher knows TEKS, understands the interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading and writing, understands that English is an alphabetic language and applies strategies for developing phonological knowledge and skills, knows factors that affect reading comprehension, applies effective strategies, knowledge of individual differences and knows personal factors that affect literacy development.
CONTENT. The ESL teacher understands how to promote students' content-area learning, academic language development and achievement across the curriculum. The beginning teacher applies knowledge of effective practices, resources and materials, knows instructional delivery practices that are effective in students' comprehension in content-area classes, applies knowledge of individual differences and knows personal factors that affect students' content-area learning.
ASSESSMENT. The ESL teacher understands formal and informal assessment procedures and instruments used in ESL programs and uses assessment results to plan and adapt instruction. The beginning teacher knows basic concepts, issues and practices related to test design, development and interpretation, applies knowledge of formal and informal assessments, knows standardized tests commonly used in ESL programs, knows state mandated LEP policies, understands relationships among state mandated standards, instruction and assessment in the classroom, knows how to use ongoing assessment to plan and adjust instruction.
Cognitive theories of bilingualism
Common Underlying Proficiency of Languages (CUP), The Threshold Theory, The Developmental Interdependence Hypothesis.
Comon Underlying Proficiency of Languages (CUP), Cummins
This model explains that in surface languages appear to be different. In deep structures, languages are interdependent. According to Collier, several studies developed in first and second language acquisiton in the United States have demonstrated the positive influence of the first language on second language learning. The most important intellectual and academic skills that second language learners need to succeed in school; literacy development, concept formation, subject knowledge and learning strategies in the first language will transfer to the second language. First language literacy skills are vital to achieve academic success in school.
The Threshold Theory, Cummins
This theory addresses the relationship between cognition and degree of bilingualism. The authors best explain the research on cognition and bilingualism by the idea of two thresholds: the first threshold is a level for a child to reach to avoid negative effects of bilingualism; the second one is a level required to experience the positive effects of bilingualism. This threshold has 3 levels. 1. -L1,-L2 limited bilinguals (kids need a lot of help), 2. L1,L2 less balanced bilingual (enough in L1, but not enough in L2), 3. +L1, +L2 balanced bilingual (kids excel, GT programs).
The Developmental Interdependence Hypothesis, Cummins
This hypothesis suggest that a child's second language competence depends partially on the level of competence already achieved in the first language.
Two Dimensions Of Language
Social Dimension of Language (language skills such as comprehension, speaking; pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar) and Academic Dimension of Language (skills of analysis and synthesis; language skills of meaning and creative composition).
Social Dimension of Language
1-2 years to develop verbal, non-verbal and written interpersonal communication. (BICS)
Academic Dimension of Language
5-7 years to develop cognitive, conceptual knowledge and the formal language of textbooks and lectures. (CALP)
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
ELL Students develop basic interpersonal communication skills approximately within two years after initial exposure to the new language. Cummins refers to BICS as everyday language. It is used most often when topics discussed are cognitively undemanding and context embedded. Gestures, facial expressions, pictures and a sense of being there all contribute to the meaning of the messages being shared between individuals.
Cognitive and Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
Students develop Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency within 5-7 years, without ESL methods. This process can be accelerated with the use of appropriate ESL teaching methodology. Academic, highly specialized language. CALP is used most often when topics discussed are cognitively demanding and context reduced. Few cues are provided.
Degree of Proficiency in L1
Students who read in their first language L1 have a database that can be used to transfer meaning into the second language L2. Skills developed in first language literacy are transferred to the second language. These skills are the base to succeed academically in the target language.
Prism Model of Language Acquisition for School
This model supports Cummins's developmental interdependence by hypothesis that suggests that the development of the first language promotes the development of academic achievement in a second language. Supporters of this model state that educational institutions should provide ELL's with cognitively complex academic instructions through the L1 as long as possible, while providing cognitively complex academic instruction through the L2 for part of the school day.
Four Linguistic Skills
These skills are acquired interdependently. Listening, reading, speaking and writing develop simultaneously. Students need opportunities to develop all of their language abilities through different modalities and technologies.
Listening and reading. Students use these skills when they are receiving lanugage input.
Speaking and writing. Students use these skills when they use language to express themselves and their thinking.
When students are acquiring a second language they will progress through four stages: Pre-production, Early Production, Speech Emergence, and Intermediate/advanced Fluency.
During this stage of lanugage development, students remain quiet for some time. They appear to be "sponging-up" the language and subtle processes involved in interpersonal interactions. This is most commonly known as The Silient Period. The student can show understanding by pointing, using movement or mime.
Early Production Stage
During this stage, students may begin to use one word or short phrase descriptors to communicate. Students can show understanding by answering yes/no questions, providing one-word answers.
Speech Emergence Stage
During this stage, students will use short sentences and make more attempts to communicate complete thoughts. Students can show understanding by: using three word phrases, using complete sentences, engaging in extended discourse.
Intermediate/Advanced Fluency Stage
During this stage, students will speak in sentences and phrases with occasional errors in grammar, syntax or vocabulary. Students can show understanding by: giving opinions, analyzing and debating, examining and evaluating, defending and justifying, creating.
L2 learners are able to understand more than they can produce. Intensive development of listening activities is essential in early stages of second language acquistion. Comprehension precedes production (speaking/writing). Before students produce an utterance in a second language, they must make choices based on the information they understand/master.
Writing is the expression of thoughts, feelings, and ideas in written form. It is important to remember that our first language is the language of our emotions. Teachers should allow students to express their feelings in their primary language.
Stages of Writing Development
Pre-writing, drafting, conferencing, revising, editing, sharing or publishing.
Brainstorming, discussing and selecting topics and related concepts and ideas to write about, and determining purpose and audience.
Putting prewriting ideas into writing.
Working with teacher and peers to discuss and review writing.
Making content changes agreed upon during the conference.
Making punctuation, grammar corrections, and spelling.
Sharing or Publishing
Preparing and sharing writing on a regular basis.
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
An approach to literacy development based on the idea that students can write by dictating to the teacher what they already know and can express verbally, and that they can then read that which has been written.
Emphasis on reading and writing skills with little concern for oral language. Stress on isolated grammar structures and vocabulary lists. Use of L1 to explain, discuss and translate L2.
Emphasis on natural language acquistions. Involves demonstration by teacher on role-playing through active use of pictures, films, tapes, and other visuals. Stress on total immersion in L2 with no use of L1.
Audiolingual method (ALM)
Based on theories from structural inguistics and behavioral psychology. Taught through mimicry, memorization, and manipulation drills. Emphasis on isolated grammar structures sequenced carefully to prevent student errors. Use of tapes, language labs, and visual aides is crucial.
Emphasis on language learning as a creative cognitive process rather than a patterned, predictable one that can be manipulated with conditioning. Emphasis on all four language learning skills and vocabulary building. Use of L1 permitted.
The Silent Way
Emphasis on silence by teacher for at least 90% of instruction. Use of L2, not L1. Encourages natural language acquistion through experimentation of sequenced exercises for meaningful communication. Social interaction by teacher with students.
Community Language Learning
This approach addresses the view of "counseling-learning". Students and teachers join together to facilitate learning in a context of valuing each individual in the group. The teacher acts as a counselor and centers his/her attention on the students and their needs.
This approach (also referred to as the functional approach) is based on the theory that language is acquired through exposer to meaningful and comprehensible messages, rather than through the formal study of grammar and vocabulary.
Emphasis on childlike experimentation with L2. Strong use of L2 for explanations and discussions. Encorages lack of inhibition and natural language acquisition. Authority figure decides instructional program.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Teacher gives commands and models the physical movement to carry out the command. Focus on listening and comprehension by responding to commands with appropriate physical movement in early stages. Wtih acqusition of L2, adds body movements to the acquisition of structures and vocabulary.
A methodology for fostering second language acquistion which focuses on teaching communicative skills, both oral and written and is based on Krashen's theory of language acquistion which assumes that speech emerges in four stages: 1. preproduction, 2. early production, 3. speech emergence, 4. intermediate fluency.
Cognitive and Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
This approach focuses on academic skills. It's supported by cognitive theories (Cummins, Piaget). CALLA is useful for ELL students that have developed BICS (social skills in English). Useful for foreign students who have developed CALP levels in their primary language and need assistance in transferring concepts and skills to L2.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)
This protocol provides concrete examples of the features of sheltered instruction that enhances, expands, and enriches teachers' instructional practice. SIOP includes eight components: preparation, building background, comprehensible input, strategies, interaction, practice/aplication, lesson delivery, and review/assessment. This protocol focuses on making academic content comprehensible for ELL.
A bilingual teaching approach in which the teacher uses two languages interchangeably during instruction. When not carefully planned, the approach may lead to code switching. Often students tune out the language they do not understand and wait for the information in the language they do understand.
New Concurrent Approach (NCA)
Developed by Rodolfo Jacobson. An approach to bilingual instruction that suggests using a structured form of code switching for delivery of content instruction.
A bilingual instructional approach in which content areas are previewed in one language, presented in the other, and reviewed in the first.
An interactive method used to improve reading comprehension. Using this teaching strategy, teaches and students take turns leading discussions regarding sections of text using cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies.
Social Affective Learning Strategies
Strategies include: Interaction, questioning for clarification, cooperative learning to solve problems, self-talk, and group discussions.
Cognitive Learning Strategies
Strategies include: Rereading, highlighting, reading aloud, taking notes, mapping information, talking to someone, finding key vocabulary, mnemonics.
Metacognitive Learning Strategies
Strategies include: predicting/inferring, self-questioning, monitoring/clarifying, evaluating, summarizing, visualizing.
Outlines, timelines, flowcharts, mapping, graphs and charts and diagrams.
Oral Language Proficiency Tests
IDEA Profieciency Test (IPT), Language Assessment Scales (LAS), Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey, Stanford English Language Proficiency Test, Bilingual Verbal Ability Test.
Standardized Achievement Test
Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), Stanford 10-Abbeviated Form, Terra Nova CAT, Aprenda - La Pruebga de Logros en Espanol, Terra Novea - Supera
Ability Tests/Gifted and Talented Test
Naglieri Nonverbal Ability TEst, Bilingual Verbal Ability TEst Normative, Woodcock - Mneos Language Surfey, Basteria III Woodcock-Munoz - Pruebas de habilidates Cognitivas, COSAT Nonverbal Battery.
English Language Proficiency Standards (instruction).
Texas English Language Proficiency Standards (assessment).
the English language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading and writing of K-12 ELLs.
how well ELLs understand and use English for everyday use and academic purposes.
four English language proficiency levels: beginning, intermediate, advanced, advanced high (including kids not in program because parents denied services, these kids are still ELLs).
Stages of English Language Development
Pre-Production, Early Production, Speech Emergence, Intermediate Fluency.
The student in this stage has minimal comprehension, 550 words in receptive vocabulary, no verbal production, communicate with gestures, lessons focus on listening comprehension and lessons build receptive vocabulary. Students can: listen, draw, point, select, move, choose, mime, act, match, and circle.
Students speak using one or two words or short phrases. Lessons expand receptive vocabulary. Activities are designed to activate students to produce vocabulary which they already understand. Students can: listen, point, select, move, mime, act, match, circle, draw, choose, group, gesture, label, list, and categorize.
Students speak in longer phrases and complete sentences. Lessons continue to expand receptive vocabulary. Activities are designed to promote higher levels of language use. Increased comprehension. 7000 words in receptive vocabulary. Simple sentences/errors in speech. Students can: recall, summarize, retell, define, role-play, compare, contrast, describe, explain, and restate.
Students engage in conversation and produce connected narrative. Lessons continue to expand receptive vocabulary. Activities are designed to develop higher levels of language use in content areas. Reading and writing activities are incorporated into lessons. Orally fluent, but below grade level in reading. 12,000 words in receptive vocabulary. Students can: analyze, evaluate, create, defend, support, describe, complete, justify, and debate.
Texas Primary Reading Inventory. Reading test administered to kindergarten, first and second grade students at least twice a year.
Texas Primary Reading Inventory administered to kindergarten, first and second graders who are receiving reading instruction in Spanish.
ELL students with Adequate Formal Schooling
Recent arrivals (less than 5 years in US schools), adequate schooling in country of origin, soon catch up linguistically (support is still needed) and academically. This group can catch up.
ELL students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Schooling
Recent arrivals (less than 5 years in US schools), limited or interrupted schooling in country of origin, limited native language literacy, below grade level in math, low academic achievement. This group really needs help.
ELL Long-Term English Learners
Seven or more years in US schools, have been served through bilingual/ESL instruction but not consistent program, below grade level in reading and writing, low score on tests, negative attitude towards schooling, drop-out risks, high rates of missing school (home responsibilities).
Second Language Method Old Approach
Grammar Translation Method, Direct Method, Audiolingual Method
Second Language Method New Approach
Cognitive Approach, Silent Way, Suggestopedia, TPR Total Physical Response, Natural Approach, Cognitive-Academic Language Learning Approach-CALLA, Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol-SIOP.
The special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn or retain new information. (Highlighting, venn diaghram, talk in groups, take notes, summarize, catergorize, listening, making connections) Concious, flexible plans learners use to make sense of what they're reading and learning, these reside in the learners heads.
Activities, techniques, approaches, and methods that teachers use to promote student learning and achievement.
Types of Leaning Strategies
Metacognitive, Cognitive, Social/Affective
Select word to be explored. Write the word, then have the students find the following parts to the word: record related words, categorize the words, write categorizes as branches, negotiate categorizes and subcategorizes.
Some Learning Strategies
Semantic Mapping, Affixes, Verbal-Visual Word Association, Wheel Map,
TAKS difinition of Immigrant status
A student who has resided outside the 50 US states for at least 2 consecutive years at some point in his or her history.
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