Study guide questions for Modern Cults Test 3 at Bob Jones University. This Quiz set contains the questions on Hindu-based Cults
700 million; 82%
[Hindu-based Cults] Approximately how many million Hindus live in India, constituting what percent of India's population?
counterculture movement of the 1960s
[Hindu-based Cults] What movement played a key role in the explosive growth of Easter religions in the West?
an enlightened master or godman
[Hindu-based Cults] What is a guru?
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi; he popularized Transcendental Meditation
[Hindu-based Cults] Who was one of the more prominent gurus in the 1960s? What is the name of the Eastern-based practice he popularized?
Monism - all is one Pantheism - all is God
[Hindu-based Cults] What two Eastern doctrines did these [The TM gurus of the 1960s] gurus bring to the West?
"knowledge" or "wisdom"
[Hindu-based Cults] What does the Sanskrit word Veda mean?
the Hindu Vedas
[Hindu-based Cults] What are the earliest Hindu scriptures called?
karma - the law that dictates one's social status; "every action yields a consequence"
[Hindu-based Cults] What is karma? What does the law of karma dictate socially?
One will be born into a good class in the next life if one builds up good karma in this life.
[Hindu-based Cults] How does the law of karma operate?
[Hindu-based Cults] What is the Hindu term for the continual cycle of death and rebirth?
salvation essentially involves breaking away from the wheel of life via reincarnation. It comes when one's individual soul (atman) is absorbed into the Universal Soul (Brahman)
[Hindu-based Cults] In Hinduism what does salvation "essentially involve" and when does it finally occur?
Buddhism and Jainism
[Hindu-based Cults] What two religions were born out of the sixth-century revolt of the people against the spiritual tyranny of the Brahmins?
- Upanishads are Hindu scriptures. - They teach that behind the many gods of Hinduism stands the one monistic reality of Brahman.
[Hindu-based Cults] What are the Upanishads and what do they teach stands behind the many gods of Hinduism?
People are ignorant of their divine nature
[Hindu-based Cults] According to Hinduism, what is the big problem for human beings?
Moksha is liberation from the cycle of rebirths. It comes when true knowledge of the illusion of life is realized
[Hindu-based Cults] What is moksha and through what does it come?
- karma marga - the way of action and ritual -- involving prescribed ceremonial duties, etc.) - jnana marga - the way of knowledge and meditation -- one must dispel ignorance and come to experientially know that the only reality is Brahman - bhakti marga - the way of devotion -- involving private as well as public acts of worship
[Hindu-based Cults] What are the three paths to enlightenment that one can pursue?
- All religions are custodians of spiritual truth; they contain truth, but are not exclusively or absolutely true - Leaders such as Jesus have attained God-realization - Jesus' teaching reflects Vedic philosophy - Christ didn't suffer while he was crucified on the cross since ha had attained enlightenment above suffering
[Hindu-based Cults] How do Hindus view the following: other religions, truth, the leaders of other religions, Jesus' teaching, Jesus Himself, Jesus' death?
- Hare Krishna - Transcendental Meditation
[Hindu-based Cults] What are the two most prominent Hindu sects on American soil?
[Hindu-based Cults] Which one of the more prominent gods in Hinduism do Hare Krishnas relate to?
people in whom Vishnu incarnates
[Hindu-based Cults] What are avatars?
[Hindu-based Cults] Who is the most famous avatar of Vishnu?
to express devotion (bhakti) through dancing and chanting to Krishna
[Hindu-based Cults] According to Hare Krishnas what is the best way to burn off karma, dispel ignorance, and achieve bliss?
- be established in a relationship with Krishna - This is accomplished by placing oneself under a master directly connected to Krishna through disciplic succession
[Hindu-based Cults] What must one do before he can engage in devotional service to Krishna through chanting? How does this happen?
to attain Krishna consciousness; to remove focus on one's material desires and anxieties
[Hindu-based Cults] What is the function and purpose of chanting?
withdraw from worldly living
[Hindu-based Cults] What do some Hare Krishna devotees feel it is in their best interest to do in order to focus devotion exclusively on Krishna?
they are considered inferior
[Hindu-based Cults] How does the Hare Krishna sect view women?
[Hindu-based Cults] The Hare Krishna sect first began with what great guru?
- Prabhupada - 20th century
[Hindu-based Cults] Who founded the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in the United States and in what century did he found it?
less than 10,000
[Hindu-based Cults] Approximately how many ISKCON devotees are there in the United States?
[Hindu-based Cults] How many Americans have now been initiated into Transcendental Meditation?
Anything "spiritual" was unpopular back then.
[Hindu-based Cults] Why did Maharishi change the name of his movement from the "Spiritual Regeneration Movement" to the "International Meditation Society" and later to "Transcendental Meditation"?
concentrating on objects, exercising "controlled" breathing, and uttering mantras with a view to emptying the mind of all distractions
[Hindu-based Cults] What techniques does Maharishi's meditation typically employ?
- God: "the one eternal unmanifested absolute Being [that] manifests itself in many forms of loves and existences in creation" - Creation: manifestation of the unmanifested absolute impersonal being God - man has not sinned against this pantheistic god, but rather has become separate from his true being - salvation: achieved by practicing TM
[Hindu-based Cults] What did maharishi believe about the following: God, Creation, man, salvation?
affiliation with various celebrities in the 1960s
[Hindu-based Cults] How was Maharishi catapulted into the mainstream of American religion and given worldwide press coverage?
- Truth is not relative - Reincarnation is a view plagued by problems - Enlightenment to Divinity does not make sense - Jesus Christ was the suffering Messiah - WARNING: Altered states of consciousness may be dangerous to your health
[Hindu-based Cults] Note the five major arguments Rhodes gives in challenging Hindu beliefs.
the significant doctrinal differences between them.
[Hindu-based Cults] The suggestion that all the religions are "custodians" of the truth is unreasonable in view of what?
Truth • Relative • Absolute God • Many gods • One God--Yahweh Jesus • Holy man, not a Savior • Divine Messiah, Savior Man's Problem • Ignorance of divine nature • Sin against holy God Solution • Enlightenment • Trust in Christ for salvation Reincarnation • Yes • No Goal • Merge with Universal Soul • Eternal life with God in heaven
[Hindu-based Cults] Study the chart "Contrasting Hinduism with Christianity".
- John 3:3 - "born again" - Matthew 11:14 - "he [John the Baptist] is the Elijah who was to come." - Jeremiah 1:5 - "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, before you were born I set you apart; I appointed you as a prophet to the nations."
[Hindu-based Cults] List three verses that Hindu gurus typically cite as scriptural support for reincarnation.
that Brahman (us) made a mistake; that we aren't divine
[Hindu-based Cults] What does the Hindu belief that man is ignorant of his divinity actually prove?
- It is abundantly clear that Jesus did suffer; actually that was the whole reason for his coming to earth. - Jesus was not wrong to overthrow the money changers' tables; it was righteous anger, which is proof of His deity
[Hindu-based Cults] What two arguments does Rhodes offer against the Hindu view of Christ?
- doesn't involve mysticism or emptying the mind. - Involves objective contemplation and deep reflection on God's Word
[Hindu-based Cults] How does biblical meditation differ from Eastern meditation?