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Industrial Revolution

a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods


process of taking over and fencing off land once shared by peasant farmers

crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.


the process of developing machine production of goods. this requires natural resources such as water, iron ore, rivers for transportation, and harbors

factors of production

Land, labor, and capital; the three groups of resources that are used to make all goods and services.


a large building in which machinery is used to manufacture goods


a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business

Agricultural Revolution

A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.

Jethrow Tull

developed seed drilled which allowed for sowing of crops in a straight row rather than scattering by hand

John Kay

In the early eighteenth century, invented the flying shuttle, which enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand.

Railroad Boom

1) SPurred industrial growth
2) Created hundreds of thousands of new jobs
3) Boosted Englands agricultural and fishing industries
4) Made travel easier

What four factors contributed to Industrialization on Britain?


How did rising population help the Industrial Revolution?


What American invention aided the British Textile Industry?



the growth of cities and the migration of people into them

middle class

A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers

working class

people who work for wages such as factory workers

Factory Act

Passed in 1819 which restricted the age of working and the amount of hours.


city in england; one of the leading industrial areas; example of an industrial revolution city; first major rail line linked mancester to liverpool

Why did people flock to British cities and towns during the Industrial Revolution?


What social class expanded as a result of industrialization?


What were some of the negative effects of the rapid growth of Manchester?



the capital raised by a corporation through the issue of shares entitling holders to an ownership interest (equity)


a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts

What early industries mechanized in the United States?

1) The textile industry
2) Clothing manufature
3) Shoemaking

Why did Belgium lead Europe in adopting industrialization?

1) It had rich deposits of iron ore and coal
2) It had British skilled workers.

How did the Industrial Revolution shift the world balance of power?

It increased competition between industrialized nations and poverty in less developed nations.

Adam Smith

Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"

Thomas Malthus

English economist: Said that population tends to increase more rapidly than food supplies

David Ricardo

English economist who argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market (1772-1823), "Principles of Political Economy" (1817); "iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation

John Stuart Mill

liberal thinker who believed that freedom and liberty comes from individualism. If the government makes all the decisions regarding freedoms then they aren't really free, and there is tyranny of majority.

Robert Owen

a British cotton manufacturer and utopian socialist; believed that humans would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment

Charles Fourier

French social theorist-criticized capitalism-wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements

Henri de Saint-Simon

Utopian socialist who wanted a society led by intellectuals providing for the welfare of the lowest classes

Karl Marx

German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences. Predicted violent proletariat revolution, and then government would eventually wither away

William Wilberforce

British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.

Jane Addams

Prominent social reformer who was responsible for creating the Hull House. She helped other women join the fight for reform, as well as influencing the creation of other settlement houses.

Horace Mann

United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education

laissez faire

idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs


an economic system based on private ownership of capital


idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people


a political theory advocating state ownership of industry


a political system characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government


a worker association that bargains with employers over wages, benefits, and working conditions


stop work in order to press demands

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