53 terms

Understanding the Earth Final Exam Review

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Tarn
A small mountain lake or pool, formed from the aftermath of a cirque glacier; When either rain or water fills the cirque
Trellis drainage
Pattern of river; Develops in folded topography like that found in the Appalachian Mountains of North America.
Dendritic drainage
Pattern of river; The subsurface geology has a similar resistance to weathering so there is no apparent control over the direction the tributaries take
Radial drainage
Pattern of river; Develops around a central elevated point. This pattern is common to such conically shaped features as volcanoes
Finger Lake
Type of lake; Glaciers widened, deepened and accentuated the existing river valleys. Glacial debris, possibly terminal moraine left behind by the receding ice, acted as dams, allowing lakes to form
Pluvial Lake
Type of lake; Is a landlocked basin which fills with rainwater during times of glaciation, when precipitation is higher
Necking
Part of river
Levees
An elongate embankment compounded of sand and silt and deposited along both banks of a river channel during times of flood.
Point bar
When a river reaches a meander, or a bend in its course, some of the sediments carried by the river are deposited on the inside of the bend. This deposit is called a ...
Ox Bow
U-shaped body of water that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water
Delta
A landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or standing water
Principle of original horizontality
Principle that says nearly all sedimentary rocks were originally deposited as horizontal layers of sediments
Principle of superposition
Principle that says each bed is older than the one above it and younger than the one below it
Principle of cross cutting relationships
Principle that says younger events cut older
Nonconformity
An unconformity that separates crystalline rocks, either igneous or metamorphic, from sedimentary rocks.
Principle of faunal succession
Principle that says fossil organisms succeed each other in a definite and determinable order
Ammonite
Index fossil
Graptolite
Index fossil
Mass wasting
Downward movement of material under the influence of gravity
Rock fall
Form of mass wasting
Talus
Result of rock fall, an example of a...
Slump
Form of mass wasting; Movement along a discrete surface
Slump
Example of...
Rock slide
Form of mass wasting; Movement along a discrete surface
Rock slide
Example of a...
Rock slide
Example of a...
Mudflow
Form of mass wasting; Contains large amounts of water
Creep
A slow downslope movement of particles that occurs on every slope covered with loose, weathered material
Creep
Example of a...
River loads
Bed Load
Dissolved Load
Suspended Load
River flows
Turbulent flow
Laminar flow
Braided
Some rivers have lots of small channels that continually split and join. These are called braided rivers. Braided rivers are usually wide but shallow. They form on fairly steep slopes and where the river bank is easily eroded.
Meandering
Rivers flowing over gently sloping ground begin to curve back and forth across the landscape; These rivers erode sediment from the outer curve of each bend and deposit it on an inner curve further down stream. This causes individual streams to grow larger and larger over time.
Alluvial fan
As a stream flows down a hill, it picks up sand and other particles—alluvium.

The rushing water carries alluvium to a flat plain, where the stream leaves its channel to spread out. Alluvium is deposited as the stream fans out, creating the familiar triangle-shaped feature.
Delta
Example of a...from the nile
Wind gap
A valley through which a waterway once flowed but is now dry as a result of stream capture
Water gap
An opening or notch that flowing water has carved through a mountain range
Peneplain
A surface reduced by erosion nearly to the condition of a plain. There are many examples of once lofty mountains, now reduced to peneplains.
Incised Meander
A river meander that has been cut abnormally deeply into the landscape because uplift of the land has led to renewed downward erosion by the river.
Roche mountonee
A rock formation created by the passing of a glacier
U shaped profile
Glaciated valleys, U shaped, are formed when a glacier travels across and down a slope, carving the valley by the action of scouring. When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains, often littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice.
Cirque Glacier
Cirque glaciers are named for the bowl-like hollows they occupy, which are called cirques. Typically, they are found high on mountainsides and tend to be wide rather than long.
Valley Glacier
Commonly originating from mountain glaciers or icefields, these glaciers spill down valleys, looking much like giant tongues. Valley glaciers may be very long, often flowing down beyond the snow line, sometimes reaching sea level; Rivers of ice
Piedmont Glacier
Piedmont glaciers occur when steep valley glaciers spill into relatively flat plains, where they spread out into bulb-like lobes
Ice cap Glacier
Ice caps are miniature ice sheets, covering less than 50,000 square kilometers (19,305 square miles). They form primarily in polar and sub-polar regions that are relatively flat and high in elevation.
Laminar flow
Ice moves by this; Occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers
Lateral moraine
Rocks tumble on top of the ice and are transported as this type of moraine
Medial moraine
When two valley glaciers join
Bottom moraine
Carried on the base of a glacier
Fyord
Formed when the sea floods in a glaciated valley
Kame
Ice front delta; A geomorphological feature, an irregularly shaped hill or mound composed of sand, gravel and till that accumulates in a depression on a retreating glacier, and is then deposited on the land surface with further melting of the glacier.
Erratic
A glacial erratic is a piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it rests
Rias
Drowned river valleys