What are the Urine characteristics and risk factors of Ca kidney stones?
Ca oxalate> Ca phosphate
Urine characteristics: inc Ca, oxalate, urate, pH. dec citrate, volume
-secondary hypercalciuria (primary hyerparathyroidism, type 1 RTA, sarcoid)
- secondary hyperoxaluria (Crohn's, ileal disease w/ intact colon, gastric bypass)
- diet: inc animal protein, sucrose, Na or dec K, fluid, fruits & veggies