In a study of elementary school children, children's low self-regulation at ages 6 to 8 predicted parents' punitive reactions when the children were 8 to 10 years of age, which, in turn, predicted the children's relatively low self-regulation at ages 10 to 12.
Both parental punitive reactions and children's relatively low self-regulation at ages 10 to 12, as well as their problem behavior at a younger age, predicted externalizing problem behavior at ages 10 to 12.
In addition, parental punitive reactions, children's self-regulation, and children's problem behavior were all correlated across time. (N. Eisenberg, Fabes et al., 1999)
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