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Final Exam (RPL 518)
Terms in this set (47)
possible definitions of a philosophy?
- Systematically defined values, beliefs and preferences; its primary tool is reason
- A point of view from which to take in the world.
views of leisure
a. Time - having comparatively more freedom to do what we want
b. Activities - anything you do in your free time; differs than work or maintenance stuff
c. State of Mind - freedom from being rushed, having control (internal locus)
The state when you have the time and freedom to do something you enjoy.
activity done in opposition to work which refreshes and restores the individual
engage in activity for enjoyment and recreation rather than a serious or practical purpose.
3 main leisure theories
Man's Use of Leisure Time (different levels of either detrimental, neutral, or positive influence on your life: injury, entertainment, emotional, active, creative)
state of mind of freedom (pure leisure, leisure-work, leisure job) vs. constraint (Pure Work; Work-Job, Pure Job)
the balance between challenge and skills results in flow. Not a good balance will either will result in anxiety or boredom
Benefit Outcome Approach to Leisure
desired and satisfying outcome; changes that are improvements (to individuals/groups)
Types of On/Off-Site Benefits (PSEE)
Ex. I can be more fit and happy!
Ex. Our community will be safer and more well-rounded!
Ex. I can help to Leave No Trace!
Ex. This recreation opportunity will bring jobs and people to our area!
Why is there a shift in recreation and leisure services to a benefits-based approach?
Money is tight, so people want to know what they are getting out of their "investment" in recreation. Use is increasing too.
3 Different Types of Constraints to Leisure
Conflict of preferences; Outside the control of the individual;
Ex. Financial resources, access, awareness
Psychological state that inhibits acquisition of leisure preferences.
Ex. Family/peer/religion approval; lack of interest, skills, information
Barriers that arise out of social interaction with friends/family/others (non-issue for individual activities, very important for group ones)
Ex. Other people.... (don't have time, lack skills, etc.)
Hierarchy of Constraints
Must get over personal qualms, then other people's barriers, then structural ones)
6 Operational Philosophies (QualMa HuPre En Hi)
1. Quality of Life
3. Human Services
Quality of Life Approach
a. dominant one; development and well-being
i. Ex. If we provide this, people will be healthier and happier; running club
a. business; relies on fees/charges
i. Ex. If we provide this, we can make money; Theme parks
Human Services Approach
a. serve social values & solve social problems
i. Ex. If we provide this, it will be good for society; Boy Scouts
a. constructive change in participants
i. Ex. If we provide this, people will end up being better people; Outward Bound
a. protection & enhancement of resources
i. Ex. If we provide this, we will foster stewardship; conservation club
a. fun and pleasure, free of social/moral constraints
i. Ex. If we provide this, people will enjoy themselves; Skate parks
3 Stages of Evaluation Cycle (CEJ)
Criteria: road map
Evidence: (data collection, data analysis) - qual & quant, instruments, methods of analysis
Judgment: conclusions & recommendations
5 P's of Evaluation
Personnel - improve or train staff
Policies - study budget, diversity, economic impact
Places - measure facilities or standards
Programs - benefits, knowledge, skill
Participants - improve quality of life, team, motivations
What must be considered and described before data collection can occur?
The problem and question of study.
Advantage: Easy to analyze, can get lots quickly
Disadvantage: won't always get full answers, no explanation
Advantage: can provide richer data, responses less influenced by way question is written
Disadvantage: different answers make it hard to code, up to interpretation, lengthy
Issues & Levels of Management
i. No specific numeric or quantitative value
ii. Groups together
iii. Ex. Age 0-10, 11-20
i. Assigns value based on an order
ii. Ex. First, second, third
i. Value is based on the magnitude of difference
ii. Based on a uniform scale of measurement
iii. Values can be mathematically manipulated
iv. Ex. Likert, Range
i. Same as interval, but has a zero point
ii. Ex. Height, weight
Frequency Counts & %
actual numbers in category, cumulative totals
typical score, single stat to best describe all; mean, median, mode
how the data is spread out; range, standard deviation: average by which scores deviate from the mean
bell curve, how scores cluster in relation to mean
Research Ethics & IRB
a. Protect rights and benefits of human subjects
b. Basics: respect, beneficence (do no harm, maximize benefits), justice
c. Avoid groups that carry risks (minors, prisoners, sensitive topics, recording)
Format & Guidelines for Writing
Last, F. I., & Last, F. I. (year). Title. Journal, Vol.#, pg#s
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