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Domination by one country of the political, encomic, or cultural life of another country or region

Social Darwinism

Westerners embraced the ideas of this by applying ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest to human societies


Local rulers left in place but were expected to ollow the advice of European advisors on issues such as trade or missionary activity
Cost less to run than a colony did and did not require a large commitment of military forces

Sphere of Influence

An area where an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges

Indirect Rule

British relied on this system to govern their colonies with sultans, chiefs, or local rulers

Direct Rule

French practiced this by sending officials and soldiers from France to administer their colonies

Usman dan Fodio

Scholar and preacher who denounced the corruption of local Hausa rulers, called for social and religious reforms based on the sharia


Ruthless and brilliant leader who waged relentless war and conquered many nearby people, conquests set off mass migrations and wars that created choas across the region


Descendents of Dutch farmers who were migrating north from the Cape Colony, many resented British laws that abolished slavery and interfered with their way of life

Great Trek

Boer families joined this to escape British rule


View of Africans that made Westerners see them as children in need of guidance
Thought African cultures and religions were ddegraded

Dr. David Livingstone

Best-known explorerer and missionary who opposed slave trade, more sympathy and less bias than most Europeans

Henry Stanley

Journalist who trekked into Central Africa to find Livingstone, who had not been heard from for years

King Leopold II

Hired Stanley to explore the Congo River basin and arrange trade treaties with African leaders, activities in Congo set off scramble by other nations

Berlin Conference

European powers met at this where they recognized Leopold's claims to the Congo Free State but called for free trade on the Congo and Niger rivers, agreed that European power could not claim any part of Africa unless it had set up a government office there
No Africans were invited

Boer War

Discovery of gold and diamonds in the lands led to conflict with Britain that involved bitter guerrilla fighting
British won in the end at a great cost

Samori Toure

Fought French forces in West Africa where he was building his own empire

Yaa Asantewaa

Queen who led the fight against British in the last Asante war


Military leader of Shona in Zimbabwe who was captured and executed
Memory of her achievements inspired later generations to fight for freedom

Menelik II

Reforming ruler began to modernize his country, hired European experts to plan modern roads and bridges and set up a Western school system
Smashed Italian invaders


Upper class western educated African emerged

Muhammad Ahamd

Announced that he was the Mahdi, Mahdi and followers firecely resisted British expansion into the region


Long awaited savior of the faith


Reform movement in Arabia that rejected schools of theology and law that had emerged in the Ottoman empire, wanted to recapture the purity and simplicity of Muhammad's original teachings


Provincial rulers


Rulers of the Ottoman Turkish empire
They rejected reform and tried to rebuild the autocratic power enjoyed by earlier rulers

Young Turks

Group of liberals formed a movement that insisted that reform was the only way to save the empire, overthrew sultan


Deliberate attempt to destroy a racial, political, or cultural group

Muhammad Ali

Called the "father of modern Egypt"
Ambitious soldier appointed governor of Egypt by the Ottomans, used the opportunity created by Napoleon's invasion and civil war that followed to seize power in 1805
Increased Egyptian participation in world trade, brought Western military experts to help build a well-trained, modern army


Special rights given to foreign powers
Russia and Britain persuaded Persian government to grant this

East India Company

Main goal in India was to make money and leading officials often grew rich, worked to improve roads, preserve peace, and reduce banditry


Hindu custom practiced mainly by the upper class that called for a widow to join her husband in death by throwing herself in his funeral fire


Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, either in India or overseas

Sepoy Rebellion

Swept across India that left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both sides
Brought major changes in British policy


Governed in the name of the queen and British officials help the top positions in the civil service and army

British Raj

Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India called this


Cutting trees by clearing new farmlands

Ram Mohun Roy

Combined both Hindu or Muslim and Western model cultures
Great scholar who felt that India could learn from the West, founded Hindu College in Calcutta, wanted to reform traditional Indian culture
Hailed today as the founder of Indian nationalism


Isolation of women in separate quarters

Indian National Congress

Nationalist leaders organized this that became known as the Congress party
Members believed in peaceful protest to gain their ends, called for great democracy which they thought it would bring more power to Indians

Balance of Trade

Difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports

Trade Surplus

Export more than it imported

Trade Deficit

Buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them

Opium War

Chinese warships clashed with British merchants that triggered this
Chinese government outlawed opium and executed Chinese drug dealers, called Britain to stop trade but they refused insisting on the right of free trade


Payment for losses in war


Right to live under their own laws and be tried in their own courts

Unequal Treaties

Forced China to make concessions to Western powers

Taipang Rebellion

Most devastating revolt in history that occurred when poverty and misery increased
Almost toppled Qing dynasty but it survived, millions of Chinese died

Ci Xi

Strong willed ruler who surrounded herself with advisors who were deeply committed to the Confucian traditions

Self-Strengthening Movement

Imported Western technology, developed shipyards, movement made limited progress because the government did not rally behind it

Sino-Japanese War

Japanese pressure on China led to this that ended in Disaster for China, Japan gained the island of Taiwan

Open Door Policy

Policy to keep Chinese trade open to everyone on an equal basis

Guang Xu

Young emperor who launched the Hundred Days of Reform

Boxer Uprising

Anti-foreign feeling exploded that a group of Chinese had formed a secret society or the Righteous Harmonious Fists
Goal to drive out "foreign devils" who were polluting the land with their un-Chinese ways

Three Principles of the People

Nationalism, democracy, livelihood

Sun Yixian

Passionate spokesman for a Chinese republic organized a Revolutionary Alliance to rebuild China on the "Three Principles of the People"

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