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58 terms

Chapter 16 Fingerprints

VHCC
STUDY
PLAY
Portrait Parle
A verbal description of a perpetrator's physical characteristics and dress provided by eyewitness
Anthropometry
A system of Identification of individuals by measurement of parts of the body, developed by Aplphonse Bertillion.
Ridge Characteristics (Minutiae)
Ridge endings, bifurcations, enclosures, and other ridge details, which must match in two fingerprints in order for their common origin to be established
Latent Fingerprint
A fingerprint made by the deposit of oils and/or perspiration, it is invisible to the naked eye.
Loop
A class of fingerprints characterized by ridge lines that enter from one side of the pattern and curve around to exit from the same side of the pattern.
Whorl
A class of fingerprints that includes ridge patterns that are generally rounded or circular in shape and have two deltas.
Arch
A class of fingerprints characterized by ridge lines that enter the print from one side and flow out the other side.
Livescan
An inkless device that captures the digital images of fingerprints and palm prints and electronically transmits the images to an AFIS
Visible Print
A fingerprint made when the finger deposits a visible material such as ink, dirt, or blood onto a surface.
Plastic Print
A fingerprint impressed in a soft surface.
Iodine Fuming
A technique for visualizing latent fingerprints by exposing them to iodine vapors.
Sublimation
A physical change from the solid directly into the gaseous state.
Ninhydrin
A chemical reagent used to develop latent fingerprints on porous materials by reacting with amino acids in perspiration.
Physical Developer
A silver nitrate-based reagent formulated to develop latent fingerprints on porous surfaces.
Superglue Fuming
A technique for visualizing latent fingerprints on nonporous surfaces by exposing them to cyanoacrylate vapors: named for the commercial product Super Glue.
Fluoresce
To emit visible light when exposed to light of a shorter wavelength.
Digital Imaging
A process through which a picture is converted into a series of square electonic dots known as pixels; the picture is manipulated by computer software that changes the numerical value of each pixel.
Pixel
A square electronic dot that is used to compose a digital image.
Alphonse Bertillon
the first systematic attempt at personal identification was devised and introduced by
Anthropometry
a system of identification relaying on precise body measurements is known as _______________
Sir Edward Richard Henry
the fingerprint classification system used in most english speaking countries was devised by __________________
True
True or False: the first systematic and official use of fingerprints for personal identification in the U.S was adopted by the New York City Civil Service commission.
is not
The individuality of a fingerprint (is, is not) determined y its pattern.
Ridge Characteristics
A point-by-point comparison of a fingerprint's ________ must be demonstrated in order to prove identity
Fingerprints
___________ are a reproduction of friction skin ridges.
dermal papillae
the form and pattern of skin ridges are determined by the (epidermis, dermal papillae)
dermal papillae
a permanent scar forms in the skin only when an injury damages the ____________
can
fingerprints (can, can not) be changed during a person's lifetime
loops, whorls and arches
the three general patterns into which fingerprints are divided are
loops
the most common fingerprint pattern is the ____
Arch
approximately 5% of the population has the ______ fingerprint pattern.
radial
a loop pattern that opens toward the thumb is known as a(n) (radial, ulnar) loop.
Type Lines
the pattern area of the loop is enclosed by two diverging ridges known as ___________
Delta
the ridge point nearest the type-line divergence is known as the ___________
One
All loops must have (one, two) delta(s)
the core
the approx. center of a loop pattern is called _______
Plain Whorl
if an imaginary line drawn b/w the two deltas of whorl pattern touches any of the spiral ridges, the pattern is classified as a
plain arch
the simplest of all fingerprint patterns is the _______
Do Not Have
arches (have, do not have) types lines, deltas, and crops.
Whorl
the presence or absence of the _____ pattern is used as a basis for determining the primary classification in the Henry system.
1/1
the largest category (25%) in the primary classification system is (1/1, 1/2)
Can Not
a fingerprint classification system (can, can not) unequivocally identify an individual.
True
True or False: computerized fingerprint search systems match prints by comparing the position of bifurcations and ridge endings.
visible prints
a fingerprint left by a person with soiled or stained fingertips is called a ___________
Plastic
_______ fingerprints are impressions left on a soft material.
latent fingerprints
fingerprints impressions that are not readily visible are called _______________
powder
fingerprints on hard and nonabsorbent surfaces are best developed by the application of a(n) _______
chemicals
fingerprints on porous surfaces are best developed with ________ treatments
Iodine
______ vapors chemically combine with fatty oils or residual water to visualize a fingerprint.
ninhydrin
the chemical _______ visualizes fingerprints by its reaction with amino acids
physical developer silver nitrate
chemical treatment with _____________ visualizes fingerprints on porous articles that may have been wet at one time.
False
True or False: a latent fingerprint is first treated with Physical Developer followed by ninhydrin.
Super Glue Fuming
a chemical technique known as ______________ is used to develop latent prints on nonporous surfaces such as metal and plastic
Fluoresce
__________ occurs when a substance absorbs light and reemits the light in wavelengths longer than the illuminating source.
light sources
high-intensity light sources known as alternate __________ are effective in developing latent fingerprints.
Photography
once a fingerprint has been visualized, it must be preserved by ____________
Pixels
The image produced from a digital file is composed of numerous square electronic dots called _____.
Frequency Fourier Transform Analysis
A __________________ is used to identify repetitive patterns such as lines or dots that interfere with the interpretation of a digitized fingerprint image.