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Chapter 16 Fingerprints
A verbal description of a perpetrator's physical characteristics and dress provided by eyewitness
A system of Identification of individuals by measurement of parts of the body, developed by Aplphonse Bertillion.
Ridge Characteristics (Minutiae)
Ridge endings, bifurcations, enclosures, and other ridge details, which must match in two fingerprints in order for their common origin to be established
A fingerprint made by the deposit of oils and/or perspiration, it is invisible to the naked eye.
A class of fingerprints characterized by ridge lines that enter from one side of the pattern and curve around to exit from the same side of the pattern.
A class of fingerprints that includes ridge patterns that are generally rounded or circular in shape and have two deltas.
A class of fingerprints characterized by ridge lines that enter the print from one side and flow out the other side.
An inkless device that captures the digital images of fingerprints and palm prints and electronically transmits the images to an AFIS
A fingerprint made when the finger deposits a visible material such as ink, dirt, or blood onto a surface.
A fingerprint impressed in a soft surface.
A technique for visualizing latent fingerprints by exposing them to iodine vapors.
A physical change from the solid directly into the gaseous state.
A chemical reagent used to develop latent fingerprints on porous materials by reacting with amino acids in perspiration.
A silver nitrate-based reagent formulated to develop latent fingerprints on porous surfaces.
A technique for visualizing latent fingerprints on nonporous surfaces by exposing them to cyanoacrylate vapors: named for the commercial product Super Glue.
To emit visible light when exposed to light of a shorter wavelength.
A process through which a picture is converted into a series of square electonic dots known as pixels; the picture is manipulated by computer software that changes the numerical value of each pixel.
A square electronic dot that is used to compose a digital image.
the first systematic attempt at personal identification was devised and introduced by
a system of identification relaying on precise body measurements is known as _______________
Sir Edward Richard Henry
the fingerprint classification system used in most english speaking countries was devised by __________________
True or False: the first systematic and official use of fingerprints for personal identification in the U.S was adopted by the New York City Civil Service commission.
The individuality of a fingerprint (is, is not) determined y its pattern.
A point-by-point comparison of a fingerprint's ________ must be demonstrated in order to prove identity
___________ are a reproduction of friction skin ridges.
the form and pattern of skin ridges are determined by the (epidermis, dermal papillae)
a permanent scar forms in the skin only when an injury damages the ____________
fingerprints (can, can not) be changed during a person's lifetime
loops, whorls and arches
the three general patterns into which fingerprints are divided are
the most common fingerprint pattern is the ____
approximately 5% of the population has the ______ fingerprint pattern.
a loop pattern that opens toward the thumb is known as a(n) (radial, ulnar) loop.
the pattern area of the loop is enclosed by two diverging ridges known as ___________
the ridge point nearest the type-line divergence is known as the ___________
All loops must have (one, two) delta(s)
the approx. center of a loop pattern is called _______
if an imaginary line drawn b/w the two deltas of whorl pattern touches any of the spiral ridges, the pattern is classified as a
the simplest of all fingerprint patterns is the _______
Do Not Have
arches (have, do not have) types lines, deltas, and crops.
the presence or absence of the _____ pattern is used as a basis for determining the primary classification in the Henry system.
the largest category (25%) in the primary classification system is (1/1, 1/2)
a fingerprint classification system (can, can not) unequivocally identify an individual.
True or False: computerized fingerprint search systems match prints by comparing the position of bifurcations and ridge endings.
a fingerprint left by a person with soiled or stained fingertips is called a ___________
_______ fingerprints are impressions left on a soft material.
fingerprints impressions that are not readily visible are called _______________
fingerprints on hard and nonabsorbent surfaces are best developed by the application of a(n) _______
fingerprints on porous surfaces are best developed with ________ treatments
______ vapors chemically combine with fatty oils or residual water to visualize a fingerprint.
the chemical _______ visualizes fingerprints by its reaction with amino acids
physical developer silver nitrate
chemical treatment with _____________ visualizes fingerprints on porous articles that may have been wet at one time.
True or False: a latent fingerprint is first treated with Physical Developer followed by ninhydrin.
Super Glue Fuming
a chemical technique known as ______________ is used to develop latent prints on nonporous surfaces such as metal and plastic
__________ occurs when a substance absorbs light and reemits the light in wavelengths longer than the illuminating source.
high-intensity light sources known as alternate __________ are effective in developing latent fingerprints.
once a fingerprint has been visualized, it must be preserved by ____________
The image produced from a digital file is composed of numerous square electronic dots called _____.
Frequency Fourier Transform Analysis
A __________________ is used to identify repetitive patterns such as lines or dots that interfere with the interpretation of a digitized fingerprint image.