children who have language differences only- normal in all other areas of development
What are the linguistic features of SLI?
Slow onset and rate of development for all language domains (not diagnosed until ~4-8 years) Form is most impacted Poor phonological processing (phonological awareness, memory, RAN, word retrieval) Grammatical morphemes slow to develop Failure to combine words at 18-24 months Produce syntactic errors for longer time Late first word Passive communicators
What are the non-linguistic features of SLI?
Cognition: problems with symbolic play, classification, figurative thinking, representational thought, hypothesis formation, speed/efficiency of processing Peer interaction: socially dispreferred, passive
Are children with SLI at risk for later reading difficulties?
What is slow expressive language development (SELD)?
Toddlers who are late in talking Diagnosed at 2 years of age if -fewer than 50 words -no word combinations -little productive language
When is SELD diagnosed?
2-3 years of age
When is SLI diagnosed?
4-8 years of age
When is a reading disability diagnosed?
7+ years of age
What are the predictors or risk factors for SLI?
Family history Low mother education level Lower comprehension Fewer gestures Less joint attention/commenting Less thematic play Less babble complexity Simple phonetic inventory Passive
What linguistic areas are impacted in individuals with Down's Syndrome?
Morphosyntax: main area -poor comprehension/expression -moderate cognitive disability may limit syntax -limited morphological development Semantics: good comprehension -poor expression of vocab Pragmatics: good socially -poor with attention to objects/joint attention -use more gestures Reading: basic level
What is Asperger syndrome?
Normal cognitive and language development with social and behavioral symptoms of autism
What areas do children with Autism have difficulty in?
1. Social interaction 2. Communication 3. Behavior 4. Intentional communication 5. Speech 6. Language
What difficulties do children with Autism have with social interaction?
Lack of social/emotional reciprocity Abnormal play
What difficulties do children with Autism have with communication?
Delay or total lack of spoken language Idiosyncratic use of language
What difficulties do children with Autism have with behavior?
Restricted pattern of interest Inflexible adherence to routines Stereotyped motor movements
What difficulties do children with Autism have with intentional communication?
Lack of joint attention Abnormal response to human faces
What difficulties do children with Autism have with speech?
Late onset Significantly slow rate of acquisition Impacted suprasegmentals
What difficulties do children with Autism have with language?
Form and vocabulary is equal to mental age (usually) Pragmatics are significantly impaired
What does a comprehensive language evaluation entail?
Comprehensive, norm-referenced test (e.g., PLS-4) 1-2 single area tests (1 for comprehension, 1 for production) Language sample Parent interview Observation at pre-K
Name a formal screening measure for child language.
Denver Developmental Screening Test-II
Name a formal generalized measure.
Bayley Scales of Infant/Toddler Development-III
Name a formalized test that measures communication.
Test of Early Language Development-3 PLS-4
Name constituents of content that need assessed when taking a language sample.
Total number of words Number of different words Vocabulary Types of words Appropriate word use Relational semantics
Name constituents of form that need assessed when taking a language sample.
MLU single words word combinations complex sentences morphemes phrasal/clausal complexity
Name constituents of use that need assessed when taking a language sample.
Type of communicator Speech acts Intentions Turns Narrative
Name constituents of cognition than need assessed when taking a language sample.
Linguistic comprehension Responsiveness to communication partner
When planning intervention for a child who is culturally-linguistically diverse, you need to know what 4 things about the child's cultural values?
1. Value of talk: amount of talk 2. Status: who initiates & directs conversation; who carries the burden of understanding 3. When intentionality begins 4. Language teaching beliefs
What is Pre-linguistic Milieu Teaching/Responsivity Education?
PMT: uses prompts, models, and natural consequences to encourage intentional communication RT: teaches parents to promote reciprocal interactions/use linguistic mapping (expansions, extensions)
What is Focused Stimulation?
Gives child multiple exemplars of a specific language target: imitation not required
What skills must a child have to use focused stimulation?
Joint attention Sustained attention Minimal level of social engagement
What is the hybrid approach?
Clinician selects treatment and manipulates yet follows interests of child in natural context
What are the key ideas of Hanan's It Takes Two to Talk program?
Indirect model; targets parents Child centered, interaction promoting, language modeling Target late talking toddlers, pre-K children with developmental or cognitive delays
What are the key ideas of Enhanced Milieu Teaching?
Teaching a sequence and what you do with a correct/incorrect response Uses: environmental arrangement Responsive interaction strategies Milieu teaching procedures
What are the key features of Milieu teaching?
Elicitive models Mands Time delays Incidental teaching
What is the target population for EMT?
SLI, ASD, ID, low SES, early stages of language development >10 productive words Verbally imitative
What are the key features of Responsive interaction strategies?
Contingent semantic feedback Modeling language treatment Expansions Turn-taking
What are the assumptions of Vygotsky's Social Interactionist theory?
1) Children are active participants in their language development and is acquired because of the need to socially interact 2) Environment and caregivers are crucial for child to learn language 3) Child's cognitive development is the product of an interaction between the child's innate abilities and social experiences
What is the Zone of Proximal Development?
What children can do without help to what he cannot do; incorporates scaffolding
What is private speech?
Child speaking aloud to self in order to problem solve
Private speech is part of what developmental model?
Vygotsky's Social Interactionist theory
What are the assumptions of Piaget's Cognitive theory?
Language is part of cognition and cognition is a prerequisite for language 4 stages of development