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AP Biology Semester 1 Final
Vocab for Semester 1 Final
Terms in this set (60)
Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan
Study of life
All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth's ecosystems
Class of organic compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (ex. sugars, chitin, cellulose)
A process in which large molecules are broken down
something that brings about a change in something else
Chemical process where mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP, the three stages are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.
Unwound clusters of DNA and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
Condensed bodies within the nucleus made in DNA and proteins called histones
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
Change in the structure or function of an organism over time
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
Result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration
A measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).
Change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
Energy that is available to do work
Task performed by a biological component
Change in free energy in a chemical equation
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally.
Genetic makeup of an organism
A metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
Attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom.
A scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested in ways that support or reject it.
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
A group of organic compounds composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen including a proportionately smaller amount of oxygen; are insoluble in water, serve as a source of stored energy, and are a component of cell membranes.
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Cell's division (PMAT) of the nucleus. Final product is 2 cells that are exactly like the parent cell.
A change in a gene or chromosome; the original source of all genetic variation on Earth
Class of biological polymers that includes DNA and RNA.
Complex molecules produced by living things which contain Carbon
Diffusion of water
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
An organism whose cells do not have an enclosed nucleus, such as bacteria.
Macromolecules that contain nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; composed of polymers of amino acids
Data in the form of words
Data that is in numbers
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius
The shape of an atom, molecule, cell, or organ that is directly connected to its function
Pairing of homologus chromosomes in a diploid cell, as occurs during prophase I of meiosis.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Second step of a homeostatic pathway that connects the signal reception to cellular response
Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
A microorganism smaller than the smallest bacterium that has no cellular structure and can cause infectious disease
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