75 terms

AP Euro Chapter 21

World War II
What were the "satisfied" powers?
US, UK, and France.
What were the political "right"s and "left"s in the Satisfied Powers?
Fascism was the right, Communism was the left.
To the satisfied powers, change was _____.
What were the dissatisfied, or "revisionist" powers?
Germany, Italy, Japan, and the USSR.
How did revisionist powers hope to achieve their goals?
Through war and rearmament.
To the revisionist powers, change was _____.
When did the Soviets join the League of Nations?
In 1933, what did Germany do?
They dropped out of the League of Nations.
The Nazis made a Non-Aggression Pact with what country?
The Soviet Union.
What did the Nazis want to do with Austria?
They wanted to annex it.
How did Mussolini respond to the Nazi desire to annex Austria?
He sent in Italian troops to the border.
March 1935 - What did the Nazi's do about their obligations from Versailles?
They repudiated the Disarmament Clauses of Versailles.
Where do the Nazis occupy in March 1936 and why is this significant?
They reoccupy the Rhineland, which violated the Versailles DMZ.
March 1938 - What does Germany do?
They annex Austria.
How did the Nuremburg Laws classify Jews?
As anyone who had at least one Jewish grandparent.
What did Germany's National Labor Front do?
It outlawed strikes and replaced labor unions.
What was France's Maginot Line?
An elaborate system of fortifications along her eastern border from Switzerland to Belgium.
In 1935, Germany signed a naval agreement with Britain. What were the contents of the agreement?
That Germany was allowed 35 ships to every 100 English vessels.
What caused Mussolini to become willing to give up Austrian independence?
The Spanish Civil War.
When did Mussolini and Hitler sign an agreement and form an axis?
October 1936.
In 1937, what did Japan do?
Invaded China and soon controlled most of the country.
What is significant about Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia?
The majority of its population was German and they began to listen to pro-Nazi agitators and Hitler's arguments.
What were the results of the Munich Conference?
France and Britain gave Hitler what he wanted. France dropped its agreement with Czechoslovakia and both France and England gave Sudetenland to Germany without Czechoslovakia's consent. Britain and France agreed to defend the rest of Czechoslovakia.
When did Hitler invade the rest of Czechoslovakia?
Six months after Munich; March 1939.
In the Spanish Civil War, what were the two sides?
The National Front (Nationalists) vs. The Popular Front (Republicans)
What groups of people were in the National Front in the Spanish Civil War?
The Catholic Church, the fascist party, and Monarchists.
What groups of people were in the Popular Front in the Spanish Civil War?
Marxists, Communists, Socialists, and Republicans.
Who wins the Spanish Civil War?
The Nationalists (Francisco Franco's side), aided by Italy and Germany.
In July 1936, what happened in Spain?
A revolt led by Francisco Franco, "the worst war in Spanish history."
What was the British, US, and French involvement in the Spanish Civil War?
They did nothing. They all forbade war material to Spain, even the French Popular Front.
What side did Russia help?
The Republicans.
What does Franco do upon winning the Spanish Civil War?
Sets up a fascist-style government for 35 years. (1939-1975)
The Spanish Civil War resulted in what pact between Italy and Germany?
Rome-Berlin Axis (1936)
When did Germany invade Poland?
September 1, 1939.
What is blitzkrieg?
Translated "lightning war," the method by which Germans invaded other countries that involved using a fast-rolling ground force of tanks and personnel supported by air attack.q
How long did it take to conquer Poland?
a month.
Upon seeing the Nazis expand, what did the USSR decide it was a good idea to do?
To start taking some nations of their own.
What prompted the USSR's expulsion from the League of Nations?
Their expansion and attack on Finland.
What countries did the Nazis take over to get to France?
Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
What French defense did the Nazis completely avoid?
The Maginot Line.
When did France surrender?
June 22, 1940; just over a month since battle started.
Who led the French government in London (the Free French)?
Charles De Gaulle.
How much of France was controlled by the Germans?
Who governed the southern 3rd of France?
Pierre Laval and Marshal Petain, who collaborated with the Nazis.
Once France was secure, what did Mussolini do?
Attacked it.
What were "quislings?"
Collaborators with Germany.
What single European country was the last free country after France had been taken?
What was the Luftwaffe?
The German air force.
Britain's airforce had what two planes that were capable of round trips to Berlin?
The Spitfire and the Hurricane.
What technology did Britain develop for the war?
Who replaced Chamberlain as Prime Minister of Britain?
Winston Churchill.
The British managed to sink what German battleship?
The Bismarck.
In June 1941, Hitler shifted his attention from attacking Britain to attacking what country?
The Battle of Stalingrad: What happened?
Nazis assaulted Stalingrad with over 250,000 troops and it all lasted for six months. Within a month, Germans had made it inside the city. The Soviets lost more men than the US did in the entire war, and the remaining 100,000 Nazis were forced to surrender in February 1943.
When did the US declare war on Japan?
December 8, 1941, following Pearl Harbor the day before.
Who was the Japanese Prime Minister at the time?
Tojo Hideki.
Who did the Germans assign to take over the Axis armies in North Africa?
General Erwin Rommel.
Who ended up winning in North Africa?
The Allies.
Where did the Allies go after winning in North Africa?
They took Sicily and invaded Italy.
Where did the Allies invade Europe?
The coast of Normandy.
Where were the Germans led to believe the Allied invasion was going to take place?
Somewhere near Calais, thanks to the French resistance spreading false intelligence.
What American General was in command of the D-Day invasion?
Dwight Eisenhower.
Russia hoped to do what with Poland upon going on the offensive?
Push the Germans out and take over for themselves.
When did the West finally reach Berlin?
April 1945.
On May 7, 1945, what does Hitler do?
Commit suicide.
What plane dropped the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
The Enola Gay.
According to Roosevelt, what are the Four Freedoms?
Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.
What was the Lend-Lease program?
Created by US Congress in 1941; provided arms food, and raw materials to countries fighting the Axis powers.
What was the Atlantic Charter?
A statement of high ideals made between Roosevelt and Churchill, resembling Wilson's Fourteen Points.
Conference in Tehran: What was this all about?
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss postwar demilitarization of Germany, and a potential United Nations.
Conference in Yalta: What was this all about?
Met in 1945; Allies made agreements about Poland and Eastern Europe and the future of Germany, the war in Asia, and the UN.
What was Germany being planned to be divided into after the war was over?
"Occupation zones," one each for France, Britain, US, and Soviets.
Potsdam Conference: What was all this about?
The last war conference, held in July 1945. Truman, Stalin, Churchill, and France.
The name for the lower third of France that was controlled by puppets of the Germans.
Vichy France.
Two superpowers arose from the ashes of WWII. Who?
The US and the USSR.