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Anatomy & Physiology (test review)
Terms in this set (63)
define: deviated septum
a bent septum that causes an unevven air flow
What does teh intereor of the nose consist of?
a nasal cavity divided by a nasal septum
What can a deviated septum cause?
a chemical substance coating the pulmonary alveoli walls that reduces surface tension, thus preventing collapse of the alveoli after expiration.
Who is a lack of a problem in? why?
in premature babies because it is the last thing to develop.
Gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli is called?
define: pulmonary ventilation( breathing)
moving air in & out of the lungs
Define: internal respiration
gas exchanbe bt blood and tissue cells in systemic capillaries
the amt of air inhaled or exhaled w/a normal breath is called?
how much does air does normal breathing move with each breath?
define: vital capacity
the total amount of exchangeable air (what you breath in & out.
Vital capacity =
Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume
define: dead space volume
air that remains in conducting zone and never reaches alveoli.
abt how many mL is dead space volume?
what is the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled called?
expiratory reserve volume
approximately how many mL is expiratory reserve volume?
define: inspiratory reserve volume
amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume
about how many mL is inspiratory reserve volume?
bt 2100 & 3200 mL
to stop breathin
what is a procedure in which the air in a person's own lungs is used to pop out or expel an obstructing peice of food called?
what are the smallest braches of teh bronchi
all but the _________ branches have reinforcing cartilage?
what ends in alveoli?
turning blue because of a lack of oxygen
define: cystic fibrosis
a genetic disorder the causes oversecretion of thick mucus that clogs the respiratory system
sinus inflammation is called?
what is difficult to treat and can cause marked changes in voice quality?
what are respiratory capacities measured with?
what measure tidal volume?
what is the name of the adenoids and where are they located? (3)
-pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids): in the nasopharynx
-palatine tonsils: in the oropharynx
-lingual tonsils: at the base of the tongue
list the regions of the pharynx from superior to inferior? (3)
What are the functions of the sinuses? (3)
1. lighten the skull
2. act as resonance chambers for speech
3. produce mucus that drains into the nasal cavity
what seperates the nasal and oral cavities?
the palate (anterior hard palate [bone] and posterior soft palate [muscle])
where do the cilia of the trachea move debris?
away from the lungs & in the opposite directin of incoming air
what are the components oft he conducting passageways of the respiratory system? (5)
-primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioli
What are the components of the respiratory zone? (6)
respiratory bronchioli, alveolar duct, aveoli, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, alveolus
What tissues composes the alveoli?
thin squamous epithelial
What all occurs in inspiration?
the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. The size of the thoracic cavity increases. External air is pulled into the lugs due to an increase in intrapulmonary volume. Diaphragm goes doen and rips go up creating surface area
What all occurs in expiration?
the ribs go down, the diaphragm up & air is pushed out of the lungs because they are relaxing
What are the 2 ways the body keeps food & air seperate?
uvula & epiglottis; there is a flat that covers the tube that enters the lungs
What are the 5 types of respiration?
1. pulmonary ventilation
2. external respiration
3. respiratory gas transport
4. internal respiration
5. cellular respiration
define: pulmonary ventilation
(breathing) moving air in & out of the lungs so that the gases in the air sacs of the lungs are continuously exchanged & refreshed
define: external respiration
gas exchange bt pulmonary blood & alveoli
define: respiratory gas transport
transpoirt of oxygen & carbon dioxide via the bloodstream
gas exchange bt blood & tissue cells in systemic capillaries is called?
define: cellular respiration
cells using oxygen to make ATP
define: external respiration
oxygen movement into the blood
oxygen moves by ______ towards the are of lower concentration?
low or insufficient oxygen
When you are old you do not breath as well as?
blood leaving the lungs is ?
carbon dioxide leaving the lungs is?
carbon dioxide poor
most of oxygen in blood is attached to? this is called?
A small amount of what is dissovled in plasma?
oxyhemoglobin or hemoglogin
most carbon dioxide is tranported in teh plasma as?
exchange of gases bt blood and body cells is called/
What is the main regulatory chemical for respiration?
What is easier for the body to sense? Carbon dioxide or oxygen
What happens when hyperventilating
you are expelling carbon dioxide but not intaking oxygen. therefore, you are low in oxygen and carbon dioxide
what happens when you breathe into a bag?
you are breathing in oxygen
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