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Hormones from University of Houston College of Pharmacy Cells II (Spring '12) Password to edit is: Cougar

Oxytocin produced by

hypothalamus nerve signal stimulates paraventricular nuclei in posterior pituitary to produce and release

Oxytocin targets

Uterus, mammary glands

Oxytocin action

stimulates labor contractions in uterus and milk ejection in mammary glands during suckling.

Oxytocin mechanism of control

Neural (positive feedback)

Oxytocin structure


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced by

hypothalamus nerve signal stimulates supra optic nuclei in posterior pituitary to produce and release

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) target


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) action

promotes water retention to raise blood pressure, AKA vasopressin
-In presence of ADH, permeability of collecting ducts increases, allowing water to be reabsorbed (conc. urine)
-Acts via adenyl cyclase-cAMP 2nd messenger system

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) mechanism of control

-When stretch receptors in the atrial vessles stretch (due to high BP), signal is sent to the brain to inhibit ADH secretion

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) structure


Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3)

thyroid gland

Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3) target

most tissue

Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3) action

increases metabolic rate (glucose oxidized, heat generated etc.)

Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3) mechanism of control

tropic hormonal

Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3) structure

amino acid-based

Calcitonin produced by

thyroid Gland

Calcitonin target

bone "osteoblast"

Calcitonin action

stimulates calcium phosphate disposition and bone tissue "to reduce blood calcium levels"

Calcitonin mechanism of control


Calcitonin structure


Parathyroid hormone (PTH) produced by

parathyroid glands

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) target

bones kidneys and intestines

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) action

stimulates osteoclast resorption of bone to released calcium and calcium absorption by kidneys and intestines

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) mechanism of control


Parathyroid hormone (PTH) structure


Aldosterone produced by

zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex

Aldosterone target


Aldosterone action

increase Na re-absorption, K secretion, and H+ secretion

Aldosterone mechanism of control

tropic hormonal

Aldosterone structure


Cortisol produced by

zona fasciclata of adrenal cortex

Cortisol target

most tissues

Cortisol action

increases energy supplies; controls stress; controls metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; anti-inflammatory effects

Cortisol mechanism of control

tropic hormonal

Cortisol structure


Renin produced by


Renin target

Zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex

Renin action

stimulates releases aldosterone

Renin mechanism of control


Renin structure

amino acid based

Atrial natriuretic peptide produced by


Atrial natriuretic peptide target


Atrial natriuretic peptide action

inhibits release of aldosterone, reduces the blood volume/pressure (tells kidneys to secrete salty urine)

Atrial natriuretic peptide mechanism of control


Atrial natriuretic peptide structure


erythropoietin produced by


erythropoietin target

red bone marrow

erythropoietin action

stimulates red blood cells production and maturation

erythropoietin mechanism of control

humoral (blood oxygen concentration)

erythropoietin structure

amino acid-based

1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol produced by


1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol target


1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol action

stimulates calcium absorption

1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol mechanism of control


1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol structure


Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin produced by

Enteroendocrine cells

Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin target

stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin action

stimulate HCG secretion, GI tracked mobility, release of bicarbonate rich juices, expulsion of bile, etc.

Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin control mechanism

humoral (food stimulates release)

Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin structure

amino acid base

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) produced by


Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) target

anterior pituitary

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) action

stimulates growth hormone production
-Short-term: mediated by increased Ca
-Long-term: increases transcription in the nucleus by genes

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) mechanism


Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) structure

amino acid-based

Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) produced by


Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) target

anterior pituitary adenohypophysis

Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) action

inhibits growth hormone production

Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) mechanism of control


Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) structure

amino acid-based

Leptin Produced by

adipose tissue

Leptin target


Leptin action


Leptin mechanism of control


Leptin structure

amino acid-based

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by


Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) target

interior pituitary

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) action

stimulated ACTH production

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mechanism of control


Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) structural

amino acid base

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) produced by


Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) target

anterior pituitary

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) action

stimulates follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) mechanism of control


Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) structure

amino acid-based

Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) production by


Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) target

anterior pituitary

Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) action

inhibits prolactin production

Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) mechanism of control


Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) structure

amino acid based

Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) produced by

Anterior Pituitary

Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) target

Almost all tissues

Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) action

Works via somatomedins such as IGF-1 (somatomedin C) to:
-Somatomedins attach more strongly to carrier protein then does GH, giving it a prolonged action.
-Stimulates protein synthesis
-mobilization of fatty acids for energy
-decreased glc utilization
-promotes protein deposition
-inhibits gluconeogenisis
-reduces insulin's actions
-overall growth of most cells and tissues (no specific tissue or gland)

Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) mechanism of control

-Stimulated in a pulsatile pattern due to many diff. factors (Starvation, hypoglycemia, exercise, deep sleep, GHRH)
-Inhibited by many diff. factors (GHIH or somatostatin, aging, increased bld glc, increased free fatty acids in bld, exogenous GH, somatomedins)

Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) structure


Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) abnormalities

Panhypopituitarism: decreased secretion of all anterior pituitary hormones==> Dwarfism if in childhood, or loss of sexual function/weight gain if in adulthood

Dwarfism: results from generalized deficiency of anterior pituitary secretion during childhood (body parts develop proportionally but at a much slower rate)

Gigantism: Hormone producing cells excessively active during adolescence. All body tissues grow larger, including bones.

Acromegaly: Excessively active GH producing cells after adolescence (after epiphysesial growth plate closure). Bones become thicker and soft tissue becomes larger.

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) produced by

Anterior Pituitary

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) target


Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) action

Stimulates synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (T4 & T3)

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) mechanism of control

-Stimulated by low T3
-Inhibited by high T4 or T3

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) structure


Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) produced by

Anterior Pituitary

Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) target

Adrenal Cortex

Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) action

Stimulates synthesis and secretion of adrenocortical hormones (cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone)

Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) mechanism of control


Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) structure


Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) produced by

Anterior Pituitary

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) target

Sex organs

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) action

Causes growth of follicles in the ovaries and sperm maturation in Sertoli cells of the testes
-Controls their hormonal and reproductive activities

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) mechanism of control


Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) structure


Luteinizing Hormone (LH) produced by

Anterior Pituitary

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) target

Sex organs

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) action

Stimulates testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells of testes
Stimulates ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, and estrogen and progesterone synthesis in ovaries

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) mechanism of control


Luteinizing Hormone (LH) structure


Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) produced by


Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) target

Anterior Pituitary

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) action

Stimulates secretion of TSH and Prolactin

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) mechanism of control


Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH)


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