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121 terms

Cells II Hormones

Hormones from University of Houston College of Pharmacy Cells II (Spring '12) Password to edit is: Cougar
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Oxytocin produced by
hypothalamus nerve signal stimulates paraventricular nuclei in posterior pituitary to produce and release
Oxytocin targets
Uterus, mammary glands
Oxytocin action
stimulates labor contractions in uterus and milk ejection in mammary glands during suckling.
Oxytocin mechanism of control
Neural (positive feedback)
Oxytocin structure
peptide
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced by
hypothalamus nerve signal stimulates supra optic nuclei in posterior pituitary to produce and release
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) target
kidneys
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) action
promotes water retention to raise blood pressure, AKA vasopressin
-In presence of ADH, permeability of collecting ducts increases, allowing water to be reabsorbed (conc. urine)
-Acts via adenyl cyclase-cAMP 2nd messenger system
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) mechanism of control
Neural
-When stretch receptors in the atrial vessles stretch (due to high BP), signal is sent to the brain to inhibit ADH secretion
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) structure
peptide
Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3)
thyroid gland
Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3) target
most tissue
Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3) action
increases metabolic rate (glucose oxidized, heat generated etc.)
Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3) mechanism of control
tropic hormonal
Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3) structure
amino acid-based
Calcitonin produced by
thyroid Gland
Calcitonin target
bone "osteoblast"
Calcitonin action
stimulates calcium phosphate disposition and bone tissue "to reduce blood calcium levels"
Calcitonin mechanism of control
humoral
Calcitonin structure
peptide
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) produced by
parathyroid glands
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) target
bones kidneys and intestines
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) action
stimulates osteoclast resorption of bone to released calcium and calcium absorption by kidneys and intestines
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) mechanism of control
humoral
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) structure
peptide
Aldosterone produced by
zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex
Aldosterone target
kidneys
Aldosterone action
increase Na re-absorption, K secretion, and H+ secretion
Aldosterone mechanism of control
tropic hormonal
Aldosterone structure
steroid-based
Cortisol produced by
zona fasciclata of adrenal cortex
Cortisol target
most tissues
Cortisol action
increases energy supplies; controls stress; controls metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; anti-inflammatory effects
Cortisol mechanism of control
tropic hormonal
Cortisol structure
steroid-based
Renin produced by
kidneys
Renin target
Zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex
Renin action
stimulates releases aldosterone
Renin mechanism of control
neural
Renin structure
amino acid based
Atrial natriuretic peptide produced by
heart
Atrial natriuretic peptide target
kidneys
Atrial natriuretic peptide action
inhibits release of aldosterone, reduces the blood volume/pressure (tells kidneys to secrete salty urine)
Atrial natriuretic peptide mechanism of control
Humoral
Atrial natriuretic peptide structure
amino-based
erythropoietin produced by
kidneys
erythropoietin target
red bone marrow
erythropoietin action
stimulates red blood cells production and maturation
erythropoietin mechanism of control
humoral (blood oxygen concentration)
erythropoietin structure
amino acid-based
1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol produced by
skin
1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol target
intestines
1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol action
stimulates calcium absorption
1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol mechanism of control
neural
1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol structure
steroid-based
Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin produced by
Enteroendocrine cells
Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin target
stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin action
stimulate HCG secretion, GI tracked mobility, release of bicarbonate rich juices, expulsion of bile, etc.
Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin control mechanism
humoral (food stimulates release)
Gastrin, secretin, cholecycstokinin structure
amino acid base
Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) produced by
hypothalamus
Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) target
anterior pituitary
Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) action
stimulates growth hormone production
-Short-term: mediated by increased Ca
-Long-term: increases transcription in the nucleus by genes
Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) mechanism
humoral
Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) structure
amino acid-based
Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) produced by
hypothalamus
Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) target
anterior pituitary adenohypophysis
Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) action
inhibits growth hormone production
Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) mechanism of control
humoral
Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone (somatostatin) structure
amino acid-based
Leptin Produced by
adipose tissue
Leptin target
brain
Leptin action
fullness/satiety
Leptin mechanism of control
humoral
Leptin structure
amino acid-based
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by
hypothalamus
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) target
interior pituitary
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) action
stimulated ACTH production
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mechanism of control
humoral
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) structural
amino acid base
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) produced by
hypothalamus
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) target
anterior pituitary
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) action
stimulates follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) mechanism of control
humoral
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) structure
amino acid-based
Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) production by
hypothalamus
Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) target
anterior pituitary
Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) action
inhibits prolactin production
Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) mechanism of control
humoral
Prolactin inhibiting hormone (Dopamine) structure
amino acid based
Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) produced by
Anterior Pituitary
Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) target
Almost all tissues
Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) action
Works via somatomedins such as IGF-1 (somatomedin C) to:
-Somatomedins attach more strongly to carrier protein then does GH, giving it a prolonged action.
-Stimulates protein synthesis
-mobilization of fatty acids for energy
-decreased glc utilization
-promotes protein deposition
-inhibits gluconeogenisis
-reduces insulin's actions
-overall growth of most cells and tissues (no specific tissue or gland)
Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) mechanism of control
-Stimulated in a pulsatile pattern due to many diff. factors (Starvation, hypoglycemia, exercise, deep sleep, GHRH)
-Inhibited by many diff. factors (GHIH or somatostatin, aging, increased bld glc, increased free fatty acids in bld, exogenous GH, somatomedins)
Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) structure
peptide
Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) abnormalities
Panhypopituitarism: decreased secretion of all anterior pituitary hormones==> Dwarfism if in childhood, or loss of sexual function/weight gain if in adulthood

Dwarfism: results from generalized deficiency of anterior pituitary secretion during childhood (body parts develop proportionally but at a much slower rate)

Gigantism: Hormone producing cells excessively active during adolescence. All body tissues grow larger, including bones.

Acromegaly: Excessively active GH producing cells after adolescence (after epiphysesial growth plate closure). Bones become thicker and soft tissue becomes larger.
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) produced by
Anterior Pituitary
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) target
Thyroid
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) action
Stimulates synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (T4 & T3)
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) mechanism of control
-Stimulated by low T3
-Inhibited by high T4 or T3
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) structure
peptide
Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) produced by
Anterior Pituitary
Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) target
Adrenal Cortex
Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) action
Stimulates synthesis and secretion of adrenocortical hormones (cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone)
Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) mechanism of control
?
Adrendocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) structure
peptide
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) produced by
Anterior Pituitary
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) target
Sex organs
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) action
Causes growth of follicles in the ovaries and sperm maturation in Sertoli cells of the testes
-Controls their hormonal and reproductive activities
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) mechanism of control
?
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) structure
peptide
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) produced by
Anterior Pituitary
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) target
Sex organs
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) action
Stimulates testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells of testes
Stimulates ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, and estrogen and progesterone synthesis in ovaries
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) mechanism of control
?
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) structure
peptide
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) produced by
Hypothalamus
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) target
Anterior Pituitary
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) action
Stimulates secretion of TSH and Prolactin
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) mechanism of control
?
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH)
peptide