A&P - Chapter 14 - Digestive
Terms in this set (53)
The tongue has several bony attachments, among them the _______ bone in the neck and the _______ process of the skull.
Food enters the stomach through the _______ sphincter and progresses into the small intestine via the _______ sphincter.
How many layers of muscle control the stomach's various movements?
The small intestine joins the large intestine at the _______ valve.
The specialized cells that produce mucus to lubricate the large intestine are called _______ cells.
The ball of partially digested food moistened with saliva and ready to swallow is called a _______.
Movement of food along the digestive tract involving the contraction and relaxation of muscles is achieved by a process called _______.
A small blind tube attached to the cecum just below (inferior) to where the ileum attaches is called the _______.
A wave of muscular contraction moving from the oropharynx toward the stomach is termed _______.
Both peristalsis and swallowing
Bile is carried to the duodenum by the _______.
Chief cells of the gastric glands secrete _______.
Gastrin, secreted by the gastric and duodenal mucosa, acts to _______.
increase the secretions of the gastric glands
Pepsin initiates the chemical digestion of _______.
The finger-like projections of the small intestinal mucosa, which are so important in nutrient absorption, are the _______.
The glands that frequently become inflamed when one gets the mumps are called the _______ glands.
Digested molecules that leave the stomach through the alimentary canal would subsequently enter the _______.
Ketoacidosis and acidosis are consequences of the incomplete oxidation of _______.
Which hormone, produced by the duodenum, causes an increase in the output of bile by the liver and pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions?
What organ produces enzymes capable of digesting all of the major categories of organic compounds?
What does the alimentary canal do?
Ingests, digests, absorbs, and defecated as it propels the foodstuffs along its tract.
What do the accessory organs do?
Assist with the process of digestive breakdown.
Oral cavity. A mucous membrane-lined cavity.
From the mouth, food passes into the oropharynx and laryngopharynx, both of which are common passageways for food, fluids, and air.
Runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach. About 25cm long it is essentially a passageway that conducts food to the stomach.
What are the 4 tissue layers that line the GI tract from the esophagus to the large intestine?
Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis externa, and Serosa.
C-shaped. On the left side of the abd cavity, nearly hidden by the liver and diaphragm. Food enters the stomach from the esophagus through the cardioesophageal sphincter.
Body's major digestive organ. Within it's twisted passageways food is prepared for its journey into the cells of the body
Larger in diameter than the small intestine but shorter in length. It extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Major function is to dry out indigestible food residue by absorbing water and to eliminate these residues from the body as feces.
Divided into 3 distinct regions - Ascending, transverse and descending.
An accessory digestive organ. Used to chew.
An accessory digestive organ. Three pair empty their secretions into the mouth.
Soft, pink, triangular gland that extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the duodenum.
Largest gland in the body. Located under the diaphragm, more to the right side of the body. Almost completely covers the stomach. Its digestive function is to produce bile.
Leaves the liver through the common hepatic duct and enters the duodenum through the bile duct. Does not contain enzymes but its bile salts emulsify fats by physically breaking large fat globules into smaller ones, thus providing more surface area for the fat-digesting enzymes to work on.
Small, thin-walled green sac that snuggles in a shallow fossa in the inferior surface of the liver.
Food must be placed into the mouth before it can be acted on.
Swallowing is an example of food movement that depends on the propulsive process called peristalsis.
Involuntary and involves alternating waves of contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the organ wall.
Food breakdown: Mechanical breakdown
Prepares food for further degradation by enzymes by physically fragmenting the foods into smaller particles.
Food breakdown: Digestion
Sequence of steps in which large food molecules are chemically broken down to their building blocks by enzymes.
The transport of the end products from the lumen of the GI tract to the blood or lymph
The elimination of indigestible residues from the GI tract via the anus in the form of feces.
innermost layer of the alimentary canal. A moist membrane that lines the cavity, or lumen, of the organ.
Found just beneath the mucosa. It is a soft connective tissue layer containing blood vessels, nerve endings, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, and lymphatic vessels.
A muscle layer typically made up of an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells.
The outermost layer of the alimentary canal wall. Consists of a single layer of flat, serous fluid-producing cells.
Found in the mouth. Digests starch and disaccharides.
Found in the small intestine. Digests starch and disaccharides.
Brush border enzymes (dextrinase, glucoamylase, lactase, maltase, and sucrose)
Found in the small intestine. Digest Oligosaccharides and disaccharides.
Found in the stomach. Digests protein.
Pancreatic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase)
Found in the small intestine. Digests large polypeptides.
Brush border enzymes (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, and dipeptidase)
Found in the small intestine. Digests small polypeptides and small peptides.
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