AP Human Geography Semester 1 Study Guide
Title says all
Terms in this set (101)
A description of surface features of land.
science of mapmaking
Scientific study of human populations.
Science dealing with the atmosphere and weather
shows a large area with little detail;, A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
shows a small area with large detail;, A map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas.
(geographic information system), is a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.
(global positioning system) is a system that accurately determines the precise position of something in Earth.
GMT ( Greenwich Mean Time)
the international agreement designated the time at the prime meridian, it is the master reference time for all points on Earth.
the acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long-distance methods.
photographs taken from the air which may reveal signs of ancient towns, roads, towns, monuments both above and below the ground
which is the physical character of a place.
is the location of a place relative to other places.
is the name given to a place on Earth..
absolute location; place on the latitude and longitude lines, exactly with east west, etc.
The position of a place in relation to another place
or perceptual region, is a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
mild climate, propensity for growing cotton, and importance of the baptist church; confederate statesl fewer than 50% high school graduates, water precipitation more than 50 cm, last frost in march.
A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward.
the spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process`
the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another.
is the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places.
is the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout a population.
is the spread of an underlying principle ,even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse.
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
mix of original culture and new culture.
how the physical environment caused social development
the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment.
when one phenomenon is related to the location of another phenomenon
the location of each meridian ( an arc drawn between the North and South Poles) on Earth according to a numbering system.
the numbering system to indicate the location of parallel, ( lines drawn on East to West)
The meridian that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England, is 0 longitude.
U.S Geological Service
Scientific agency for natural sciences, including earth science and biology. Extensive information on U.S. water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, etc.
The 5 Themes of Geography
movement ,the movement of humans/animals from place to place (animal tracking, food);
regions, an area of land with the same unifying characteristics
location, two types: relative (rough direction) and absolute (coordinate, exact location)
interaction, the way humans interact with their environment
place, the area in which events take place
area were animals can rome safely and are protected inside of, and/or a place where hunting is not allowed.
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
a push factor, or force that pushes something away
a pull factor, or force that brings something in.
belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.
A pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept; A model is simply a representation of a real thing
A combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation.
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
is not simply a matter of the total number of people on Earth but also includes the relationship between the number of people and the availability of resources.
lesser developed country, A country that has low levels of average wealth, industrialization and modernization and often high levels of population growth and people employed in agriculture
more developed country, More Developed Countries, Countries with higher levels of per capita income, industrialization and modernization. they usually have lower levels of population growth. The developed region includes all of Europe, Canada, the U.S., Australia, Japan, New Zealand and the USSR
land suitable for agriculture.
is the total number of people divided by total land area.
the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land.
Number of individuals per unit area
Most populous countries as of 2010
China, India, United States, Indonesia, Brazil.
Lands that receive less than 250mm of precipitation per year
First Agricultural Revolution
when people started to farm and stuff, Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
Second Agricultural Revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted from technolgical innivations and specialization in the late-eighteenth-century Europe
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
crude birth rate, number of births per 1000 peoples (rounded which is why it is crude)
crude death, number of deaths per 1000 peoples ( rounded which is why is it crude)
natural increase rate, the percentage of which a population increase, when the percentages of cbr and cdr are subtracted.
Total Fertility Rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life
the number of years a person should expect to live.
the amount of time it takes to double population
The percentage of people who are too young or too old to work in a society is the
zero population growth rate., a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero,cbr= cdr.
a country's population can be displayed by age and gender grups based on a bar graph.
that the demand of food will arise the rate and amount we can produce it.
a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
(of a disease) prevalent over a whole country or the world.
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
the large scale emigration of talented people from a country.
means that the migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors.
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
implies that the migrant has chosen to move for economic improvement.
the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated
migration TO a place
migration FROM a location
daily movement to work, shopping ,etc.
movement according to seasons, I.e mexicans coming back home in spring and leaving in the fall.
short term seasonal migration to college, winter in the south ,etc.
the difference between the number of immigrants and the numbers of emigrants .
is an environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration
the main U.S source of immigrants.
citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle east.
Most Common Characteristics of Refugees
no official documentation, most move on foot, bike, etc, carry what is easily carried ,etc.
is an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs.
is a zone where no state exercises complete political control.
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
A group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere.
states with a long or narrow shape.
the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
a compact state with a large projecting extension
a state that completely surrounds another one.
includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
a state whos boundaries are close are the boundaries of the nation. ( ex. Japan)
a large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory.
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Europe's stated motives for colonization
gold glory, god
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Independent and free from all external control, enjoys full equality with other states; governs its own territory; selects its own political, economic, and social systems
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