101 terms

AP Human Geography Semester 1 Study Guide

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Topography
A description of surface features of land.
cartography
science of mapmaking
demography
Scientific study of human populations.
meteorology
Science dealing with the atmosphere and weather
large scale
shows a large area with little detail;, A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
small scale
shows a small area with large detail;, A map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas.
GIS
(geographic information system), is a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.
GPS
(global positioning system) is a system that accurately determines the precise position of something in Earth.
GMT ( Greenwich Mean Time)
the international agreement designated the time at the prime meridian, it is the master reference time for all points on Earth.
Remote Sensing
the acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long-distance methods.
aerial photography
photographs taken from the air which may reveal signs of ancient towns, roads, towns, monuments both above and below the ground
site
which is the physical character of a place.
situation
is the location of a place relative to other places.
toponym
is the name given to a place on Earth..
Exact Location
absolute location; place on the latitude and longitude lines, exactly with east west, etc.
Relative Location
The position of a place in relation to another place
vernacular region
or perceptual region, is a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
The South
mild climate, propensity for growing cotton, and importance of the baptist church; confederate statesl fewer than 50% high school graduates, water precipitation more than 50 cm, last frost in march.
cultural hearth
A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward.
expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process`
relocation diffusion
the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another.
hierarchical diffusion
is the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places.
contagious diffusion
is the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout a population.
stimulus diffusion
is the spread of an underlying principle ,even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse.
sequent occupance
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
aculturation
mix of original culture and new culture.
environmental determination
how the physical environment caused social development
possiblism
the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment.
spacial association
when one phenomenon is related to the location of another phenomenon
Longitude
the location of each meridian ( an arc drawn between the North and South Poles) on Earth according to a numbering system.
Latitude
the numbering system to indicate the location of parallel, ( lines drawn on East to West)
Prime Meridian
The meridian that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England, is 0 longitude.
U.S Geological Service
Scientific agency for natural sciences, including earth science and biology. Extensive information on U.S. water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, etc.
The 5 Themes of Geography
movement ,the movement of humans/animals from place to place (animal tracking, food);
regions, an area of land with the same unifying characteristics
location, two types: relative (rough direction) and absolute (coordinate, exact location)
interaction, the way humans interact with their environment
place, the area in which events take place
Game Preserve
area were animals can rome safely and are protected inside of, and/or a place where hunting is not allowed.
Infrastructure
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
Centrifugal Force
a push factor, or force that pushes something away
Centripetal Force
a pull factor, or force that brings something in.
Mercantilism
belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.
Model
A pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept; A model is simply a representation of a real thing
Cultural Landscape
A combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation.
globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
overpopulation
is not simply a matter of the total number of people on Earth but also includes the relationship between the number of people and the availability of resources.
LDC
lesser developed country, A country that has low levels of average wealth, industrialization and modernization and often high levels of population growth and people employed in agriculture
MDC
more developed country, More Developed Countries, Countries with higher levels of per capita income, industrialization and modernization. they usually have lower levels of population growth. The developed region includes all of Europe, Canada, the U.S., Australia, Japan, New Zealand and the USSR
arable land
land suitable for agriculture.
arithmetic density
is the total number of people divided by total land area.
physiological density
the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land.
population density
Number of individuals per unit area
Most populous countries as of 2010
China, India, United States, Indonesia, Brazil.
arid land
Lands that receive less than 250mm of precipitation per year
First Agricultural Revolution
when people started to farm and stuff, Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
Second Agricultural Revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Industrial Revoultion
the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted from technolgical innivations and specialization in the late-eighteenth-century Europe
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
CBR
crude birth rate, number of births per 1000 peoples (rounded which is why it is crude)
CDR
crude death, number of deaths per 1000 peoples ( rounded which is why is it crude)
NIR
natural increase rate, the percentage of which a population increase, when the percentages of cbr and cdr are subtracted.
Total Fertility Rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life
life expectancy
the number of years a person should expect to live.
doubling time
the amount of time it takes to double population
Dependency Rate
The percentage of people who are too young or too old to work in a society is the
ZPG
zero population growth rate., a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero,cbr= cdr.
Population Pyramids
a country's population can be displayed by age and gender grups based on a bar graph.
Malthus Theory
that the demand of food will arise the rate and amount we can produce it.
Epidemic
a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
Pandemic
(of a disease) prevalent over a whole country or the world.
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
Brain Drain
the large scale emigration of talented people from a country.
Forced migration
means that the migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors.
Step Migration
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Voluntary Migration
implies that the migrant has chosen to move for economic improvement.
Counter Migration
the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated
Immigration
migration TO a place
Emigration
migration FROM a location
Cyclic Movement
daily movement to work, shopping ,etc.
Seasonal Movement
movement according to seasons, I.e mexicans coming back home in spring and leaving in the fall.
Periodic Movement
short term seasonal migration to college, winter in the south ,etc.
Net migration
the difference between the number of immigrants and the numbers of emigrants .
intervening obstacle
is an environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration
undocumented immigrants
the main U.S source of immigrants.
Guest workers
citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle east.
Most Common Characteristics of Refugees
no official documentation, most move on foot, bike, etc, carry what is easily carried ,etc.
State
is an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Frontier
is a zone where no state exercises complete political control.
Unitary State
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Federal State
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Colony
A group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere.
elongated state
states with a long or narrow shape.
compact state
the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
proprupted state
a compact state with a large projecting extension
perforated state
a state that completely surrounds another one.
fragmented state
includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
Nation-State
a state whos boundaries are close are the boundaries of the nation. ( ex. Japan)
Nation
a large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory.
Multinational State
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Europe's stated motives for colonization
gold glory, god
nationality
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Ethnicity
A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.
Sovereignty
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Sovereign State
Independent and free from all external control, enjoys full equality with other states; governs its own territory; selects its own political, economic, and social systems