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sodium and calcium

when the cardiac muscle cell is at rest, the concentration of what is greater on the outside of the cell?


modifiers that affect the force of the contraction of the heart are?

sodium and calcium

the movement of what into the cardiac muscle cell depolarizes the cardiac muscle cell?


modifiers that affect heart rate are?

K+ and NA+

which ion(s) at least initially lowered the frog heart rate in the physioex?

increasing extracellular potassium causes the resting membrane potential to become more positive

what effect does potassium have on the resting membrane potential of the cardiac cell?


the cardiac cell plasma membrane is most permeable to what?

into the cell and decrease heart rate

calcium channel blockers block the movement of calcium_____?

positive inotropic

a ______ drug increases the force of the contraction of the heart?

like pilocarpine, it decreases heart rate

muscarine is a poison found in poisonous mushrooms. muscarine binds to acetylcholine receptors and mimics its action. what does it do to heart rate?


beta blockers are used to treat high blood pressure. which receptors are being blocked?

digitalis and atropine

with respect to heart rate, which of the following worked in opposition to each other? (atropine, epinephrine, pilocarpine, digitalis)

digitalis and pilocarpine, atropine and epinephrine

which chemicals had the same effects on heart rate?

epinephrine and norepinephrine

which chemical affected heart rate through the use of cAMP?

acetylcholine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine

the sinoatrial node has receptors for what?

an antagonist and decrease heart rate

an adrenergic drug that worked in opposition to epinephrine would?

have temperature fluctuations that coincide with the external temperature and lack internal homeostatic temperature regulatory mechanisms

organisms that are poikilothermic ?


which part of the human body regulates temperature?

vasodilation and sweating

heat-releasing mechanisms include what?

directly proportional

for the frog heart, temperature and heart rate are?

the heart rate would increase

if the human heart were experiencing hyperthermia, what would happen to heart rate?

cations, anions, and electrolytes

ringer's solution contains which of the following?

increase the heart rate and increase the force of contraction

the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on the heart is to?

the parasympathetic branch

which branch of the autonomic nervous system dominates after a large meal?

in the right atrial wall of the human heart

the sinoatrial node is located where?

a decrease in heart rate, and eventually a temporary cessation of the heartbeat

excessive vagal stimulation of the heart will result in what?

the heart rate slowed and eventually stopped

when vagus nerve stimulation was applied to the frog heart, what happened?

the part where the heart resumed beating

what part of the trading illustrates vagal escape?

about 100 beats per minute

if the vagus nerve were severed, what would be the approximate heart rate?

the SA node

which part of the heart conduction system has the fastest rate of spontaneous depolarization?


the autorhythmicity of cardiac pacemaker cells is made possible by the reduced permeability of what?

potassium exiting the cell

depolarization of cardiac muscle is due to what?

is longer than the total refractory period for skeletal muscle

the total refractory period of cardiac muscle is?

wave summation and tetanus

skeletal muscle is capable of what, which cardiac muscle is not capable of?

did not increase the height of the ventricular systole wave

delivering single shocks in succession to stimulate the frog heart had what result?

an extrasystole and an extra contraction of the ventricles

the doublet that results with more frequent stimulate of the frog heart represents what?

a compensatory pause followed

when the ventricles beat rapidly in succession, what happened?

extrasystoles were produced

when multiple stimuli were applied at 20 stimuli/sec, what happened?

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