25 terms

AP Psychology Unit 2 Research Methods/Thinking Critically

Timpanogos High School AP Psychology Paul Barth
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
the repetition of an experiment in order to test the validity of its conclusion
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
Case Study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
False Consensus Effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
Random Sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic Observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation Coefficient
A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Illusory Correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
an inert substance given to the control group in an experiment
Double-blind Procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the subject and the research staff are unaware about whether the subject has received the treatment or a placebo.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Critical Thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Hindsight Bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.)
Operational Definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
Dependent Variable
variable that changes as a result of a change in the independent variable
Independent Variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Random Assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Control Condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Experimental Condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other