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128 terms

AHN 1 - Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

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Active Transport
the movement of materials across the membrane of a cell by means of chemical activity, which allows the cell to admit larger molecules than would otherwise be able to enter
Anatomy
the study, classification, and description of structures and organs of the body
Cell
the fundamental unit of all living tissue
Cytoplasm
"Living matter"; a substance that exists only in cells, composed largely of a gel-like substance that contains water, minerals, enzymes, and other specialized materials. Is composed of 70% water with traces of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals, and salts.
Diffusion
a process in which solid particles in a fluid move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Dorsal
Toward the back
Filtration
the transfer of water and dissolved substances from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
Homeostatsis
a relative constancy in the internal environment of the body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival
Membrane
think sheet of tissue that serves many functions in the body; it covers surfaces, lines and lubricates hollow organs, and protects and anchors organs and bones
Mitosis
type of cell division of somatic (i.e., nonreproductive) cells in which each daughter cell contains the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell
Nucleus
largest organelle within the cell; it is responsible for cell reproduction and control of the other organelles; active transport, metabolism, growth, and heredity
Organ
a group of several different kinds of tissue arranged so that they can work together to perform a special function
Osmosis
passage of water across a selectively permeable membrane; the water moves from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution
Passive transport
the movement of small molecules across the membrane of a cell by diffusion; no cellular energy is required
Phagocytosis
"cell-eating": the process that permits a cell to surround or engulf any foreign material and digest it
Physiology
explanation of the processes and functions of the various structures of the body and how they interrelate
Pincocytosis
the process by which extracellular fluid is ingested by the cells
System
an organization of varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged so that they can work together to perform complex functions for the body.
Tissue
an organization of many similar cells that act together to perform common function
Ventral
facing forward; the front of the body
Anatomical position
standing erect with the face and palms facing forward. The head and feet also point forward. The right and left sides of the body are mirror images of each other.
Anterior
ventral: to face forward; the front of the body. The chest is located anterior to the spine
Posterior
dorsal: toward the back. The kidneys are posterior to the peritoneum
Cranial
toward the head. The brain is located in the cranial portion o f the body
Caudal
toward the "tail", the distal portion of the spine. A caudal anesthetic may be given
Superior
toward the head or above. The neck is superior to the shoulders
Inferior
lower, toward the feet, or below another. The foot is inferior to the ankle
Medial
toward the midline. The sternum (breastbone) is located in the medial portion of the chest.
Lateral
toward the side. The outer area of the leg, the area located on the side, is called lateral
Proximal
nearest the origin of the structure; nearest the trunk. The elbow is proximal to the forearm
Distal
farthest from the origin of the structure; farthest from the trunk. The fingers are distal to the hand.Periperal
Superficial
nearer the surface. The skin of the arm is superficial to the muscles below it
Deep
farther away from the body surface. The bone of the upper arm is deep to the muscles that surround and cover it
Sagittal plane
runs lengthwise from the front to the back. A saggittal cut gives a right and a left portion of the body. A midsagittal cut give two equal halves
Coronal (frontal) plane
divides the body into a ventral section and a dorsal section
Transverse plane
cuts the body horizontal to the sagittal and frontal planes, dividing the body into caudal and cranial portion.
Ventral body cavity and Dorsal body cavity
the body cavity divided into two major cavities:
Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
Ventral body cavity are subdivided into two part:
Mediastinum
trachea, heart, blood vessells
Pleural cavities
lungs
Abdominal cavity
liver, gallbladder, stomach, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, parts of large intestine
Pelvic cavity
lower (sigmoid) colon, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs
Cranial cavity
brain
Spinal cavity
spinal cord
Right hypochrondriac region
the right lobe of the liver and the gallbladder
Epigastric region
parts of the right and left lobes of the liver and a large portion of the stomach
Left hypochrondriac region
a small portion of the stomach and larg intestine
Right lumbar region
parts of the large and small intestine
Umbilical region
a portion of the transverse colon and loops of the small intestine
Left lumbar region
additional loops of the small intestine and a part of the colon
Right iliac region
the cecum and parts of the small intestine
Hypogastric region
loops of the small intestine, the urinary bladder, and the appendix
Left iliac region
portions of the colon and the small intestine
Atoms
small particles that form the building blocks of matter, the smallest complete units of which all matter is made
Molecule
made of two or more different atoms
Robert Hooke
discovered the first cell while examining plant fragments under the microscope
Growth, metabolism, responsiveness, reproduction, and homeostasis
Five unique characteristics of life
Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
three main parts of a cell
Selectively permeable
a job function of a plasma membrane; membrane permits certain substances to enter and leave while not allowing other substances to cross
Tissue typing
a series of diagnostic tests before an organ transplant to determine whether the tissues of a donor and recipient are compatible
Nucleolus and Chromatin granules
Nucleus contains two specialized structures
Chromatin granules
composed of protein and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Ribosomes attach to rough ER to synthesize proteins; smooth ER synthesizes lipids and certain carbohydrates
Ribosomes
Synthesize proteins; the cell's "protein factories"
Mitochondria
Synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP); the cell's "powerhouse". ATP described as the "energy currency" of the cell because it supplies the energy for all activities
Lysosomes
Serve as cell's "digestive system"; are small saclike structures containing enzymes that digest food compounds and microbes that have invade the cell
Golgi apparatus
"Package plant"; Synthesizes carbohydrate, combines with with protein, and packages the product as globules of glycoprotein and moves outward through the cell membrane, where it breaks open and releases its contents
Centrioles
Function in cell reproduction
Cilia
Short, hairlike extensions of the free surfaces of some cells capable of movement; often have specialized functions such as propelling mucus upward over cells that line the respiratory tract
Flagella
Single projections of cell surfaces, much larger than cilia; an example in humans is the "tail" of a sperm cell; propulsive movement makes it possible for sperm to "swim" or move toward the ovum once they are deposited in the female reproductive tract
Nucleoli
Play an essential role in the formation of ribosomes
Protein
What is a vital component of every cell in the body
DNA and RNA
Two important nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
"chemical blueprint"; encodes the message for protein synthesis and send it to the RNA
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
"chemical messenger"; transports the message to ribosomes
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
During mitosis the cell goes through four phase:
Prohpase
in the nucleus the chromosome form two stands called chromatids. In the cytoplasm the centrioles form a network of spindle fibers
Metaphase
the nuclear membrane and nucleoulus disappear, and the chromosomes are aligned across the center of the cell. The centrioles are at the opposite ends of the cell, and spindle fibers are attached to each chromatid
Anaphase
the chromosomes are pulled to the opposite ends of the cell, and cell division begins.
Telophase
during this final phase of cell division, the two nuclei appear and the chromosomes disperse. At the end of the phase, two new daughter cells appear.
Sodium-potassium pump
The process of actively transporting sodium ions (Na+) out of cells and potassium ions (K+) into cells.
Calcium pump
Movement of solute particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration (up the concentration gradient) by means of a carrier molecule
Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous tissue
What are four main types of tissues
Epithelial tissue
packed closely together and contain no blood vessel
simple squamous, stratified squamous, simple columnar, stratified transitional
Four types of epithelial tissue
Simple squamous
located in the Alveoli of lungs and lining of blood and lymphatic vessels.
Stratified squamous
located in the Surface of lining of mouth and esophagus and surface of skin.
Simple columnar
located in the Surface layer of lining of stomach, intestines, and parts of respiratory tract. They Protect, secret, and absorp
Stratified transitional
located in the Urinary bladder. It function is to protect
Connective tissue
"connects," or joins, tissues or structure of the body, and it also supports and protects them
Areolar
One of the important forms of connective tissue, Located between other tissues and organ. It's function is connection
Adipose
One of the important forms of connective tissue, Located under skin and padding at various point.
Dense fibrous
One of the important forms of connective tissue, Located in tendons; ligaments
Bone
One of the important forms of connective tissue, Skeleton
Cartilage
One of the important forms of connective tissue. it is part of nasal septum; covering articular surfaces of bones; larynx; rings in trachea and bronchi. Disks between vertebrae. External ear
Blood
One of the important forms of connective tissue, found in blood vessels
Hematopoietic
One of the important forms of connective tissue. Located in liquid matrix with dense arrangement of blood cell-producing cells located in red bone marrow
Muscle tissue
composed of cells that contract in response to a message from the brain to the spinal cord
Skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscle
What are three types of muscle cells
Skeletal (striated voluntary) muscle
Muscles that attach to bones, eyeball muscles, upper third of esophagus
Cardiac (striated involuntary) muscle
Muscle found in wall of heart
visceral (smooth, involuntary) muscle
Muscle found in walls of tubular vesceral of digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts. in walls of blood vessels, and large lymphatic vessels, in ducts of glands, intrinstic eye muscles, errector of muscles of hair
Nervous tissue
allow rapid communication between the brain or spinal cord body structures and control of body functions.
Neurons and glial cells
Nervous tissue is composed of two types of cells:
Neurons
nerve cells and transmit impulses or messages.
Glial cells
connecting and supporting cells; they support and nourish the neurons
Dendrites, cell body, axons
Neurons have three parts
Dendrites
carry impulses toward the cell body
Axons
carry impulses away from the cell body
Mucous and serous membranes
Epithelial membranes are divided into two subgroups:
Mucous membranes
secrete mucus, which keeps the membranes moist and soft and protect against bacterial invasion
Serous membranes
secrete a thin, watery fluid that prevents friction when organs rub against one another. These membranes line the body surfaces that do not open to the outside environment. Ex., intestines, lungs, and the hart
Epithelial sheet and connective tissue layer
Serous membranes are composed of two distinct layers of tissue
Connective tissue membranes
smooth and slick and secrete synovial fluid (thick, colorless lubricating fluid).
Bursae
sacs of synovial fluid that are located outside of the joint
Integumentary system
skin, hair, nails, sense receptors, sweat glands, oil glands
Skeletal system
bones, joints
Muscular system
voluntary or striated muscles, involuntary or smooth muscle
Nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
Endocrine system
pituitary gland, pineal gland, hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes
Cardiovascular system
heart, blood vessel
Lymphatic system
lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils
Respiratory system
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Digestive system
Primary Organs: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine(duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid), rectum, anal canal
Accessory Organs: teeth, salivary glands, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, appendix
Urinary system
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Reproductive system
Male: gonads(testes), genital ducts (epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra), accessory glands (prostate, seminal vesicles, Cowper's glands), supporting structures (penis, scrotum)
Female: Gonads (ovaries), accessory organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina), extenal genitalia (vulva), mons pubis, labia majora, liba minora, clitoris, accessory glands, skene's glands, batholin's glands, mammary glands
Plasma membrane
the membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, regulating the cell's chemical composition.
Interstitial fluid
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body