61 terms

Photography Final- Semester 1

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Depth of Field
The range of items in focus in an image. This is controlled by the focal length and aperture opening of a lens. A large or wide aperture gives a shallow depth of field (not much range in focus) and a smaller or narrow aperture give a large depth of field (more range in focus)
F-Stops
Number indicating the size of the aperture. It is an inversely proportionate number as in F2.8 is a large opening and F16 is a small opening.
White Balance
Camera setting that adjusts for lighting in order make white objects appear white in photos
ISO
The speed or light sensitivity of a captured
image is rated by ISO numbers such as 100, 400, 800 etc. The higher the number, the more sensitive to light it is. Similar to film, the higher speeds usually bring on more electronic "noise" so the image gets grainier.
Focal Point
The center of interest or activity
Rule of Thirds
A composition rule that divides the screen into thirds horizontally and vertically, like a tic-tac toe grid placed over the picture on a television set. Almost all of the important information included in every shot is located at one of the four intersections of the horizontal and vertical lines
Seven Elements of Composition
1. Line
2. Shape/Form
3. Space
4. Value
5. Texture
6. Size
7. Color
Principles of Composition
1. Balance
2. Rhythm
3. Emphasis
4. Unity
AE
Auto Exposure. When the camera is set to this mode, it will automatically set all the
required modes for the light conditions.
Program Mode
The camera will choose the shutter speed and aperture automatically
Aperture Priority
You choose the aperture setting and the camera will automatically choose the shutter speed according to the lighting conditions.
Shutter Priority
You choose the shutter speed and the camera will select the correct aperture as long as there is enough light. Good for sports or action photography where you need control over the shutter speeds.
AF
Auto Focus. The lens automatically focuses on the subject as quick as the eye.
Aperture
The lens opening that allows more, or less light onto the sensor formed by a diaphragm inside the actual lens.
Archive
A collection of data in long term storage, usually the hard drive on your PC or an external hard drive.
Bracketing
Can apply to flash or exposure. It is used to create usually 3 photographs. One photo is exposed by the cameras meter automatically, one under exposed and one overexposed by a predetermined number of stops. Also "exposure bracketing".
Brightness
Value of a pixel in a digital image giving its value of lightness from black to white, with 0 being black and 255 being white.
Card Reader
Used for transferring data from your flash memory card to your PC. A better way of transferring your image files than connecting the camera to your PC.
CCD (Charged Coupled Device)
This is a light sensitive chip used in your digital camera for image gathering. The CCD Pixels gather the color from the light and pass it to the shift register for storage. CCD's are analogue sensors, the digitizing occurs when the electrons are passed through the A to D converter. This "Analogue to Digital" converter converts the analogue signal to a digital file or signal.
Center-Weighted
Term used to describe an automatic exposure system that uses just the center portion of the image to adjust the overall value.
CMYK
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. Colors used by most printers to produce your prints.
Compression
A Digital photograph creates an image file that is enormous. To enable image files to become smaller and more manageable cameras employ some form of compression such as JPEG. RAW and TIFF files have no compression and take up more space.
Contrast
The measure of rate of change of brightness in an image.
DPI
"Dots per Inch" This is a measurement value used to describe the resolution of a display screen or that of a printer
DSLR
Digital Single Lens Reflex (SLR). Camera with interchangeable lens.
Exposure
Amount of light that hits the image sensor of film controlled by the shutter speed and aperture.
Flat Bed Scanner
Optical Scanner in which the original image remains stationary while the CCD sensors pass over or under it. The scanned image is held flat by the lid
Full Bleed
Otherwise known as "Borderless" printing. Means the ink limit extends to all 4 edges of a print.
GIF
A graphic file format mainly used for Web graphic or small animated (GIF) files. Not good for photographs as it only contains a maximum of 256 colors.
Gigabyte
A measure of computer memory or disk space consisting of about one billion bytes (a thousand megabytes). The actual value is 1,073,741,824 bytes (1024 megabytes).
Gradation
A smooth transition between black and white, one color and another or color and no color.
Halftone Image
An image reproduced through a special screen made up of dots of various sizes, to simulate shades of grey in an image. Normally used for magazine or newspaper reproduction of images. It is also how modern inkjet printers work. Half toning or dithering are the methods used to produce a smooth gradation of color versus distinct bands of color or moiré
Hot Shoe
A flash connector generally found on the top of the camera that lets you attach an external flash unit and trigger it in sync with the cameras shutter.
Image Sensor
Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor (CCD or CMOS), to gather the image data, whereas a traditional camera exposes light to emulsion film
JPG
This is the most common type of compressed image file format used in modern digicams.
LCD
(Liquid Crystal Display). There are 2 types. First, a TFT high-resolution color display device like a very small TV set. Secondly, a monochrome (B and W) information display using just black alphanumeric characters on a grey or green background.
LED
(Light Emitting Diode). This refers to all the little red, green and yellow indicator lights
Matrix Metering
Most digicams have a matrix metering option which uses 256 areas of the frame to calculate the best overall exposure value.
MB
(MegaByte). Memory term meaning 1024 Kilobytes. Used to denote the size of a flash memory card such as 4MB, 8MB etc. MB is often confused with Mb (megabit), there's 8 bits in a byte so 256Mb = 32MB.
Megapixel
The CCD (or CMOS) resolution of one million pixels. Digicams are commonly rated by Megapixels. You multiply the horizontal resolution by the vertical resolution to get the total pixel count.
Metering
Metering is used to calculate the exposure from the existing light conditions. Includes Matrix Metering, Spot metering and Center-weighted metering.
Moiré
A visible pattern that occurs when one or more halftone screens are mis-registered in a color image. Often produces a colored checkerboard (or rainbow) pattern.
Multi Zone Focusing
The camera will automatically determine which zone (centre, left, right, upper or lower) to use to perform the auto focusing.
Noise
Relates to pixels in your image that were misinterpreted. Normally occurs when you shoot a long exposure (beyond 1/2-second) or when you use the higher ISO values from 400 or above.
Noise Reduction
Some cameras that offer long shutter speeds (more than 1 second) usually have a noise reduction (NR) feature that is either automatic or can be enabled in the menu. This is to help eliminate random "hot" pixels and other image noise. Can add a more time to the process as it needs to write the new image data along with the recorded image.
Palette
A thumbnail of all available colors to a computer or devices. The palette allows the user to choose which colors are available for the computer to display. The more colors the larger the data and the more processing time required to display
your images.
Polarizer (Polarizing Filter)
A filter for eliminating glare and reflections which attached to the front of your lens (normally just SLR's). There are 2 types of polarizing filter, linear and circular. Linear is for film only, it screws up most auto focus systems on digicams. Therefore be sure you use a circular polarizer filter. It can also be used to darken skies and increase the saturation of colors.
PNG
(Portable Network Graphics). This is an image file format. It is a compressed file format similar to JPG.
RAW
These files store the unprocessed image data at 12 bits per channel. Directly from the camera's imaging chip to its memory storage device.
Optical Resolution
An absolute number that the camera's image sensor can physically
Interpolated Resolution
Adds pixels to the image using complex software algorithms to determine what color they should be.
RGB
The primary colors from which all other colors are derived. The additive reproduction process mixes various amounts of red, green and blue to produce other colors. Combining one of these additive colors primary colors with another produces the additive secondary colors cyan, magenta and yellow. Combining all three produces white.
Saturation
The degree to which a color is undiluted by white light. If a color is 100 percent saturated, it contains no white light. If a color has no saturation, it is a shade of grey.
Scanner
An optical device that converts images such as photographs, into digital form so that they can be stored and manipulated on your PC.
Skylight Filter
This is an Ultra Violet absorbing filter that helps overcome the abundance of blue in outdoor photographs.
SLR
Single Lens Reflex. This means the camera has a viewfinder that sees through the lens (TTL) by way of a 45°-angled mirror that flips up when the shutter fires and allows the light to strike the image sensor (or film).
Spot Metering
The camera's auto exposure system is focused on a very small area in the centre of the viewfinder to adjust the overall exposure value just for that area.
Telephoto
This is the focal length that gives you the narrowest angle of coverage, good for bringing distant objects closer. (i.e. 100mm, 200mm, 500mm etc.)
TIFF
(Tagged Image File Format). An uncompressed image file that is lossless and produces no artifacts as is common with other image formats such as JPEG.
TTL
(Through the Lens). Used when talking about either an auto focus or auto exposure system that works "through" the camera's lens.
UV Filter
This is an Ultra Violet absorbing filter that helps overcome the abundance of blue in outdoor photographs. Can be used to protect the camera's lens from scratching, fingerprints or dirt.