25 terms

Biology Chapter 30 review

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Order of food going through digestive system
Mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Mechanical digestion
Chewing and physically breaking down of food
Chemical digestion
Breaking down of food into chemical bonds and nutrients the body can use, saliva contains enzymes that helps break food down
Digestion - mouth
Mechanical digestion or chewing
Digestion - esophagus
Food (bolus - chunk of food) travels through the food tube to the stomach
Peristalsis
Bolus is moved through contractions of smooth muscles in the esophagus
Digestion - stomach
Sac where Mechanical digestion of food contractions of muscles churn and mix food
Digestion - small intestine
Where chemical digestion begins, adapts to absorb nutrients
Villi
Folded surface of small intestine covered with projections called
Digestion - large intestine/colon
Where undirected material goes after the small intestine (water, cellulose), job is to remove water from undigested material that is left
Pancreas
Produces hormones, regulates blood sugar levels, neutralizes stomach acids
Liver
Produces bile that breaks down fats
Gallbladder
Stores bile
Rectum and anus
Final passageways of food
Most important of all nutrients
Water
Carbohydrates
Main source of energy for the body from sugars and starches
Fats
Store energy, protect body organs, insulate the body
Proteins
Provides raw materials for growth, repairs skin and muscles, enzymes that help body reactions take place
Vitamins
Organic molecules that help move along body processes
Minerals
Inorganic molecules that the body needs in small amounts (ex. Calcium for teeth)
Protein insulin
Controls sugar in blood
Protein hemoglobin
Transports oxygen
Excretion pathway of urine
Kidney - ureter - urinary bladder - urethra
Components of urine
Urea and salts
Components Filtrate
Blood, water, urea, glucose, salts, amino acids, and vitamins