Islam's culture and ideas were spread primarily through traders, raveling scholars, and military conquests. Islam pushed back the borders or the Tang Empire and slowed the spread of Christianity.
Some additional info is provided below in no particular order
- Commodities from inner Eurasia spread through baghdad's wersetn desert, linking the captial with syria, egypt, north africa, and southern spain
-Baghdad was a world entrepot
- Islam used trade routes stretching across Southwest Asia and North Africa to spread its faith and political empire.
- As Islam spread and became decentralized, it generated competitive dynasties in Spain, North Africa, and points farther east. These dynasties brought a high level of artistry from its heartland
- Islam spread its religious rules, traditions and ideology to Medina.
- Islam spread its religious rules, traditions and ideology via warfare to Syria, Egypt, and Iraq (the once centerpieces of the former Byzantine and Sasanian Empire
- Byzantines retreated into the highlands of Anatolia
- Sasanians were obliterated by Islam military and their empire was destroyed
- The Great Mosque of Cordoba was built in Spain under the rule of Abd al-Rahman
- an area 8000 miles east of spain known as the "central asian Galaxy of Talent" was home to arabic intellectuals one of which invented algebra.
- Islam crossed the Saharah Desert into africa by traders and scholars
- Trade spread commodities and generated prodigious wealth which allowed centralized kingdoms to develop.
- African and Arabic culture intermingled in Africa.
- Spread primarily through trading merchants, traveling scholars, an military conquests.
In contrast to Christianity, Islam's religious leaders emphasized what they had in common with those around them: many islamic scholars, theologians, and mystics were married men, merchants, or couriers just like the public.
- People were converted through the faith's appeal to converts. Some turned to it for practical reasons, reduced taxes or enhanced power. Some, particularly living in ethnically or religiously diverse cultures welcomed the idea of a single all powerful god and clear code of laws and saw it offering answers to secular questions.
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- In contrast to Islam, who emphasized what they had in common with laypeople, monks and nuns were honored in small groups by warrior societies who were much different from them.
Monks, nuns, and Rome-based popes spread Christianity throughout Western Europe.
By 800 C.E., most regions of northern Europe held great monasteries. The support of kings and local warlords Christianity continued to spread.
Christianity also spread via traveling scholars and traders.
-People often converted because Christianity seemed like an other worldy alternative to the warrior societies of the time. People also converted because their kings and leaders had been converted to Christianity.
-Buddhism really began to spread when Emperor Li Shimin (Tang Dynasty) accepted Buddhism as one of the three ways of learning (joining Confucianism and daoism) and began constructing monastaries and meditation structures on trade routes.
Caves along the silk road were painted with buddhist writings, pictures, and the like.
-Buddhism was popular amongst China, Korea, Japan
-Islam began in Arabia and started with Muhammad.
Muhammad believed that God came to him in a vision which eventually inspired the Qu'ran.
Claimed there was only one single, all powerful God (Allah).
Urged others to set aside false deity's.
Carry the message to non-believers.
Submit one's self to God and care for less fortunate, for the day of judgement was imminent.
Islam, Christianity, and Judaism all monotheistic.
Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Judaism all believed in "Good Direction".
Islam, Judaism, Zoroastrianism and Christianity all had a foundational text that proclaimed tenets of the faith and united people to expand its spiritual frontiers.
Zoroastrianism and islam required prayer multiple times a day.
As Allah revealed shit to Muhammad, Ahura Mazda (GOD) revealed the truth through the Prophet, Zoroaster in Zoroastrianism.
Religions all were structured in a way which made men more dominant than women.
Zoroastrianism believed in the dualism of good and evil (Islam is against any form of Dualism). Islam veiled their women, no other religions did.
- Major global hubs:Egypt (Alexandria & Cairo), China (Quanzhou), Malaysia (Malaka), India (Quilon)
- Improved navigational aids, better shipbuilding, better maps, and new legal accounting practices made shipping easier and cheaper than traveling by the land trade routes
- Arab dhows were capable of transporting more goods (5 tons of cargo) and better at sailing thanks to Lateen sails that make better use of winds in Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean
- Needle compass invented by Chinese
- in China, government guided the trading fleets in & out of harbors
- Fatimids in Egypt profited from maritime trade and defended fleets from pirates
- Cairo and Alexandria was home to Muslim and Jewish trading posts
- Silk and other textiles were most popular commodities from China
- Armored convoys in Mediterranean and Rea seas provided by Caliphs ensured that ships arrived on schedule
- Song government registered cargoes and traders
- Quilon (The tip of India in general) was the center of trade thanks to its location. Shipments moved from Quilon to Melaka, Quanzhou, Cairo, Alexandria, and Constantinople
- Ottomans: embraced a Sunni view of Islam, most powerful, conquered Constantinople under Mehmed, had a huge army, the "fall" of Constantinople led to many Christian scholars leaving to Europe (thus the Renaissance was possible), bridged the gap between the European and Arab world under Suleiman the Magnificent, Hagia Sophia turned into Mosque in Istanbul, very multilingual, flexible and tolerant of others (except Safavids), fought with Safavids because of differences of Shia v. Sunni
- Safavids: embraced Shia view of Islam, located in modern day Iran, Khan (ruler) originally practiced tolerance (Jews & Christians) but soon after gave people a choice of conversion or death, strong military
- Mughal: Sikhism, Babur takes over India, religiously tolerant, respected previous Indian customs such as the caste system
- Each established legitimacy through a form of Islamic idealogy and military prowess. Ottomans and Mughals were both religiously tolerant. for differences see above