Terms in this set (102)
A scientist is working in the lab, with compounds containing carbon. She is most likely working in the field of
Chemical composition of a new substance
The branch of chemistry called analytical chemistry most likely would be used in determining the
A scientist is working with mathematical and computer models to learn about the principles at work in a chemical reaction. He is working in the field of
Research that is carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge, such as research into the properties of a substance, is considered to be
To find safer chemical for industrial purposes, a scientist is working with chemicals that do not cause depletion of ozone in the atmosphere. This an example of
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of that matter is
Which of the following is an extensive property of matter?
Which of the following changes is a physical change of matter?
Vinegar combining with baking soda to produce carbon dioxide
Which of the following changes is a chemical change of matter?
The composition, structure, properties, and changes of matter
Chemistry is a natural science that deals with the study of
carbon + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide
reactants: carbon + oxygen
products: carbon dioxide
mercury (II) oxide ---> mercury + oxygen
reactants: mercury + oxygen
products: mercury (II) oxide
group 1 period 3
group 17 period 3
group 11 period 4
group 1 period 1
group 4 period 5
group 11 period 6
What is the difference between an element and a compound?
An element is a component or constituent of a whole or one of the parts into which a whole may be resolved by analysis.
A compound is composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients.
What is the difference between a mixture and a pure substance? What is the difference between a homogenous mixture and a heterogenous mixture? Give an example of each.
A mixture is a blend of 2 or more types of matter- coffee and creamer
A pure substance has a fixed composition and differs from a mixture. Ex: water
Homogenous is a uniform composition. Ex: salt water solution
Heterogenous is not a uniform composition. Ex: mixture of clay and water
Give 2 characteristics each of metals, metalloids, and nonmetals.
metals: good conductors of heat and electricity, and malleability
nonmetals: poor conductor of heat and electricity, and gases at room temp
metalloids: melting point of liquids and contains metals and non metals
What is the difference between a solid and a liquid? What is the difference between a liquid and a gas?
Solid has definite shape and volume. Liquid has definite volume but definite shape.
Gas has neither volume or shape. Liquid has definite volume and indefinite shape.
According to the Bohr model of the atom, which particles are allowed to exist in any one of a number of energy levels?
The lowest energy state of an atom is its
The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves is the wave's
releases energy of only certain values
Because excited hydrogen atoms always produced the same line- emission spectrum, scientists concluded that hydrogen
Who laid the foundation for modern quantum theory through his waves equations?
minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
A quantum energy is the
all of the above
A form of energy that exhibits wave behavior as it travels through space is
the speed of light
In the equation c=yv, "c" represents
in the orbit closest to the nucleus
In the Bohr model of an atom, in which orbit is an electron in it lowest energy state?
specify properties of electrons and their orbitals
Quantum numbers are sets of numbers that
How many different orientations are there for "d" orbitals
Which orbitals can be modeled as "p" shaped
What is the maximum number of electrons that a single orbital can hold?
In a ground state hydrogen atom in which orbital is the electron?
The ground state electron configuration of neon is 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6. In this arrangement, how many of neon's "p" orbitals are completely filled?
emits a photon of radiation
Whenever an excited hydrogen atom returns from an excited state to its ground state it
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
can't tell both the position and speed of an electron
orbitals all get one electron before they get a 2nd
emission of electrons when light shines on a metal
electrons occupy lowest orbital possible
Pauli exclusion principle
2 electrons must have different sets of 4 quantum numbers
mathematically shows the wave particles of electrons
all forms of radiation together
the number of waves that pass through specific points
group 18 elements
1s^2 2s^2 2p^2
1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^4
1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6
The 4 quantum numbers describe properties of orbitals and electrons. Briefly explain each of these 4 quantum numbers.
Principle quantum number- main energy level in an orbital.
Angular momentum- the shape of the orbit.
Magnetic quantum number- the orientation of orbits around the nucleus.
Spin state quantum number- indicates the 2 fundamental spin states of an orbit
conservation of mass
Using improved chemistry equipment in the late 1700s, chemists observed that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. This scientific law is called the law of
The fact that every sample of a particular chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass is known as the law of
A molecule of carbon monoxide, CO, has one atom of oxygen while a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, has 2. In a sample of CO containing 1 g of carbon, 1.33g of oxygen will combine with the carbon to form the molecule. What is the mass of oxygen in a sample of CO2 containing 1g of carbon?
If 2 or more compounds are composed of the same 2 elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element that is combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers. This statement is called the law of
an atom consists of a nucleus and a cloud of electrons
Which of the following is not part of Dalton's atomic theory?
atoms can be subdivided into subatomic particles
Which is one way that Dalton's atomic theory has been shown to be incorrect?
Cathode rays are composed of particles that are now known as
very large compared with the rest of the atom
The total volume of the nucleus of an atom is
protons and neutrons
Except for in the simplest type of hydrogen atom, all nuclei consist of
surrounding the nucleus
Electrons can be found
short-range forces, called nuclear forces, bind protons together
What statement best explains why protons can remain close to one another in a nucleus?
1/12 of the mass of a carbon- 12 atom
What is the definition of one atomic mass unit (amu)?
multiply the mass of each isotope by the decimal fraction representing its abundance naturally, then add all these products together
To take a weighted average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element in order to arrive at an average atomic mass, you would
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon -12
One mole is defined as
average atomic mass
The molar mass of an element is numerically equal to the element's
number of protons plus neutrons
SI unit for amount of substance
number of protons
uses g/mol for units
ex: protium, deuterium, tritium
Briefly explain the cathode ray experiment and include the final conclusion.
The cathode which was the negative side and the anode which was the positive side worked together to vanish the atoms inside the ray. His conclusion was they all have negative charges and have different sizes and masses.
salt deposits form from an evaporated liquid
Which of these observations is qualitative rather than quantitative?
experimenting before forming a hypothesis
All of the following are steps in the scientific method except
it takes large amounts of evidence through numerous proven hypotheses
What does it take to create a theory?
A proposed explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested is know as a
The unit m^3 is used to express
meter and kilogram
The SI base units for length and mass are
mm, cm, m, km
The abbreviations for units of length in order from smallest to largest are
A measure of the quantity of matter is
One cubic centimeter is equivalent to
The relationship between the mass (m) of a material, its volume (V), and its density (D) can be shown as
A chemical reaction was carried out three times. The mass of the product was 9.93 g for the first trial, 9.94 g for the second trial, and 9.92 g for the third trial. Under the conditions of the experiment, the reaction is known to yield 8.60 g of product. The three mass values measured are
is close to the true value
A measurement is accurate if it
all nonzero digits are significant
To determine the number of significant digits in a measurement, follow the rule that
something that has size or amount
specific portion of matter for study
generalization explains a body of facts
pull of gravity on matter
formula showing accuracy of value
showing a number with an exponent
Briefly explain Rutherford's gold foil experiment and include the final conclusion.
Rutherford's experiment was used to deflect the particles. The particles that went past the gold foil were deflected. The light off of the gold foil deflected the atoms from going past the foil. His conclusions were an atom is just more than an empty space and scattered electrons and an atom must have a positively charged center that contains most of its mass.
There are 3 subatomic particles. Give the charge of each one and describe the masses relative to each other.
Protons: 1 1.00728
Neutrons: 0 1.00867
Electrons: -1 0.00055
Give a description on the photoelectric effect experiment and what did Planck and Einstein prove because of it?
Refers to the emission of an electron when light shines on metal. Max Planck proposed that an object that emits energy and is small, specific packet called quantum. Einstein proposed that the light consisted of photons.
Give a description on how the Hydrogen atom line spectrum experiment was done and what did it prove?
Investigations passed a current through a vacuum tube of hydrogen gas which showed a pink glow. When they put it through a prism it showed 4 distinct colors. It proved that the line emission spectrum could only exist in the ground state.
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