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35 terms

great depression and new deal

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Herbert hoover
President during the Great Depression. Not well liked. Ignored the depression of the country and the lack of jobs and homes.
franklin roosevelt
Democratic candidate who won the 1932 election by a landslide. He refused to uphold any of Hoover's policies with the intent on enacting his own. He pledged a present a "New Deal" (its specific meaning ambiguous at the time to the American people) to the American public.
alfred landon
Governor from Kansas who ran for president against Roosevelt in 1936 election; didn't except Social Security Act. He was very liberal and alienated much of the party, as well as the core of the anti-government republican platform in 1936
huey long
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
fireside chats
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
bonus army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
uneven distribution of wealth
U.S. turning out nearly half of the world's industrial goods. the richest 5% of the pop. recieved 33% of all personal income. Yet 60% of all American families earned less then $2,000 a year. too poor to buy. unable to sell goods. reduced production. laid off workers.
easy credit
The federal Reserve Bank kept interest rates low, making it easy for businesses and individuals to take out loans. This loose money encouraged people to go into debt
hawley-smoot tariff act
LAW THAT RAISED TAXES ON IMPORTS AND WORSENED THE DEPRESSION
roaring 20's
People challenged the old ways of thinking by wearing different fashions and drinking illegally.
dust bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
soup kitchens and breadlines
places where the hungry could go get free meals during the Great Depression
unemployment rate during the great depression
went from 3% (1.6 million) in 1929 to 25% (13 million) just 4 years later in 1933
trickle down economics
govt gives tax breaks to company owners, who in turn give workers larger wages; INEFFECTIVE
volunteerism
the practice of offering your time and services to others without payment
rugged individualism
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
hoovervilles
camps built outside of major cities by people who had lost their homes during the great depression called hoovervilles because the people blamed pre. hoover foe their situition
relief recovery reform
3 r's, the three goals of FDR's New Deal.
CCC civilian conservation corps
Employed single men ages 18-25 to work in construction (parks, forests, wilderness, and countryside planting tress
PWA public works administration
Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.
TVA tennessee valley authority
Built dams to control flooding,generate hydroelectrical power, and boost agricultural production, in theTennessee Valley region. Provided jobs, homes, and reforestation. it still exists
SEC securities and exchange commission
government agency that regulates the sale of stocks and bonds and insider trading.
WPA works progress administration
Provided long term government jobs building school, post offices. also employed artists, photographers, writers, composers, and actors
FDIC federal deposit insurance corporation
insured savings accounts in banks approved by the government
bank holiday
closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
social security
An act passed in 1935 gave government-payed pensions to American citizens over the age 65 as well as provided help for the unemployed, the disabled, and the needy.
industrial union
An association of all workers in the same industry, regardless of the job each worker performs
CIO congress of industrial organizations
picked up where the AFL left off. it can handle the unskilled labor mass production industrial worker
sit down strike
Labor protest in which laborers stop working but refuse to leave the workplace
REA rural electrification administration
Helped farmers and rural residents to receive cheaper electricity.
court packing
one step too far. fdr tries to pack the supreme court with pro democrat/pro new deal/ Pro FDR judges who would pass his legislation.
national labor relations act
aka wagner act. outlawed unfair labor practices; granted workers the right to organize unions and to bargain collectively; created the national labor relations board
share our wealth clubs
Clubs founded under the ideologies of Senator Long that supported the idea of taking property of the rich - give to the poor plus $2k a year AND a college education.
goals of the second new deal
1.to promote general welfare. 2. adress the problems of the elderly, the poor, the unemployed. help the farmers, and to create new public works projects, and enact measures to protect workers rights.
causes of the great depression
Stock market crash - black tuesday oct. 29, 1929, uneven distribution of wealth, easy credit, hawley-smoot tariff act, roaring 20's, agriculture - over production of farms